Also known as Forensic Dentistry First Forensic Dentist in the U.S. was Paul Revere. He helped identify fallen Revolutionary War soldiers. The proper handling, examination, and evaluation of dental evidence. This dental evidence can be used to help reconstruct a crime scene or help identify a victim.
Forensic Odontologists Forensic Dentists are responsible for 6 main areas of practice: A) Identification of found human remains B) Identification in mass fatalities C) Assessment of bite mark injuries D) Assessment of case of abuse (child, spousal, elder) E) Civil cases involving malpractice F) Age estimation
Dental Evidence Evidence may be derived from teeth. DNA, Age, Individual Characteristics of Bite Marks Useful in determining the age and identification of the person to whom the teeth belong.
Bite Marks Bite marks can be left on the following: A) Victim (by the attacker) B) Perpetrator (from the victim of an attack) C) Object at the crime scene
Age Estimation Age can be estimated using dental records. Tooth eruption and tooth wear are observed to give an age estimation. Odontologists examine the cementum: mineralized tissue that lines the surface of tooth roots. Cementum exhibits annual patterns of deposition.
Four Types of Teeth Incisors Canine Premolars Molars
Incisors Flat surfaces Straight, sharp horizontal edge for cutting and biting Long, single conical root
Canine Very strong, pointed corner teeth Larger and stronger than incisors Used for tearing and shredding Single root longer than other tooth types
Pre-molars (Bicuspid Teeth) 8 Premolars Used for chewing of food Placed laterally behind the canine teeth 1-2 roots
Molars 12 Molars Back human teeth Large and flat upper surface 2-4 Roots Largest of the permanent teeth Used for final chewing/grinding of food before swallowing
Enamel Hardest part of the tooth Hardest of all the tissues in the human body Protective tooth structure that covers the exposed part of the tooth (the crown)
Dentin Also known as Ivory Tissue below the tooth enamel that forms the main mass of a tooth. Supports the tooth enamel and supports the pressure of eating
Dental Pulp Soft connective tissue containing nerves and blood vessels that nourish the tooth. The most internal structure of a tooth (surrounded by dentine) Found in the soft center of a tooth (inside the chamber and root canal). Contains DNA.
Cementum Covers the dentine outside of the root (under the gum line) Attached to the bone of the jaw with little elastic fibers. Cementum is hard as bone but not as hard as the tooth enamel.
Gums Tough pink colored tissue that covers the bone of the jaw. Supports the tooth structure inside the alveolar bone.
Periodontal Ligament Tissue between the cementum and the alveolar bone. Consists of tough, little elastic fibers that keep the tooth attached to the jaw.
Alveolar Bone The bone of the jaw. Keeps the tooth in its place. Feeds and protects the tooth.
High Profile Criminal Cases Wayne Boden (first case of Forensic Dentistry) Ted Bundy
Wayne Boden Case First case of forensic dentistry. Canadian serial killer and rapist (1969-1971) Called the Vampire Rapist because he bit the breast of his victims. Forensic Odontology evidence led to his conviction.
Ted Bundy American serial killer (1974-1978) Escaped twice from county jails before final apprehension in February 1978. Confessed to over 30 murders (estimates range from 26 to over 100) A combination of a witness and tooth impressions left on one of his victims helped to convict Ted Bundy.