5A person with Autism usually has problems interacting with people in the following ways: May avoid or lack eye contactMay not imitate othersMay not point or use other hand gesturesMay prefer to be aloneMay not understand social cues
7A person with Autism will usually have problems communicating, such as: May not speak at allMay be severely language delayedMay have unusual or odd speech patterns (repeat words or phrases heard by others, i.e. tv or videos)May be unable to initiate or engage in a conversationMay be unable to use their imagination during play, i.e pretending a banana is a phone
9An individual with Autism may show restricted, repetitive, or ritualistic behaviors, interests, and activities, for example:May be preoccupied with a narrow range of interests (i.e dinosaurs, astronomy, trains, or roller coasters)May insist on sameness (i.e prefer certain clothing or eat only certain foods)May line up their toys or objectsMay flap their hands, or make hand and body gesturesMay rock themselvesMay be self-injurious (i.e head banding)May anger easily or show aggressionMay be resistant to changeMay become angry or upset if their daily routine changes in any wayMay focus on only a small part of a toy or object
10“Children do not outgrow Autism, but symptoms may lessen as the child develops and receives treatment”
11Why the Lyle Torrant Center? Small class sizesHighly structured classroomsOn site therapies (OT, PT, Speech)Teachers trained in ASD intervention techniques (PECS, TEACCH)On site sensory integration rooms
12Intervention Techniques TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Communication handicapped Children)PECS (Picture Exchange Communication System)Visual Supports
14What is TEACCH?The long-term goals of the TEACCH approach are both skill development and fulfillment of fundamental human needs such as dignity, engagement in productive and personally meaningful activities, and feelings of security, self-efficacy, and self-confidence. To accomplish these goals, TEACCH developed the intervention approach called “Structured Teaching.”
15The principles of Structured Teaching include: Understanding the culture of autism.Developing an individualized person- and family-centered plan for each client or student, rather than using a standard curriculum.Structuring the physical environment.Using visual supports to make the sequence of daily activities predictable and understandable .Using visual supports to make individual tasks understandable
16How do we use TEACCH?Structured classroom environment (separated areas within the class for specific purposes)Individualized teaching at the Teacher Table (1 on 1 teaching)Independent skills practiced in individual Work Stations.Visual Supports used throughout the school and classrooms.
18PECS Teaches functional communication that is immediately useful Is appropriate for anyone having difficulty using speechIs augmentative or alternativeDoes not disregard speech
19PECS Functions Requests: direct reinforcement Comments: social reinforcementSpontaneous vs. responsive
20Phases of PECSPhase 1-Teaaches Students to initiate communication by exchanging a single picture for a desired itemPhase 2-Teaches students to be persistent communicators-actively seek out pictures to make a request.Phase 3-Teaches students to discriminate pictures and select the picture that represents the item.
21Phases of PECS (cont’d) Phase 4-Teaches students to use sentence structure to make a request in the form of “I want _____.”Phase 5-Teaches students to respond to a question “What do you want?”Phase 6-Teaches students to comment about things in their environment both spontaneously and in question form.
22How do we use PECS?PECS is a technique used during many Speech therapy sessions.PECS is used during meal and play times within the classroom.PECS can be sent home for parents to use with their child.Each student has their own book and set of pictures to make requests and comments.