Presentation on theme: "India A non-violent revolution for independence."— Presentation transcript:
India A non-violent revolution for independence
A Quiz on Modern India What type of government does India have? What is the capital? What is the total population? (approximate) What percentage of people live in urban areas? What is the life expectancy? What are the major religions? Which is biggest? What is the literacy rate? What is the official language? Who gets to vote, if anyone, in India? Watch this: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I6- 2hIImXokhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I6- 2hIImXok
Where Should We Start?
Background Mughal Empire ruled most of northern part Muslim empire Akbar, the ruler, tolerant of Hindus - puts them in important govt positions Official rulers until 1857
Rich Mughal Culture
Empire Disintegrates Last Expansionist Emperor Aurangzeb Muslim historians see him as + because he increased Muslim law Hindu historians see him as - ; they see him as a Muslim fanatic He dies, his vassals create own sovereign states - less unified
Enter British East India Company Started in the 1600s as a trading company – traded spices, silks, indigo, saltpetre, & cotton so competitive w/ other countriies trade that it created its own military
British Govt Takes Over Gradual – took away company monopoly (one seller) 1813 1834 Company becomes a Govt Agency 1857 Indian Mutiny – Colonial office takes full control
The Sepoy Revolt
The Sepoy Revolt 1857 British ask Sepoys (army soldiers) to bite the end off of Endfiled Rifle cartridge Oiled w/ pig fat Culturally insensitive – Muslims dont eat pork
British Squelch Rebellion – Fierce paybacks
Sepoy Results Not a unified revolt - Unsuccessful Considered the first Independence Movement Wont see organized attempts at revolting against British until WWI
Consequences of the Mutiny among British British Govt takes over via Government of India Act of 1858 – now Viceroy of India 3 Presidencies – Bengal, Madras, Bombay Presidency – Plus Princely States India now in 2 parts: British India is directly governed and Indian States are ruled by Indian Princes Divide & rule policy – aim to create rifts between members of different religions British Interests become (more) paramount
Viceroy of India Directly in charge of every section of admin His approval necessary for every law or regulation – both central & provincial Councils w/ Indian members were created to but had no authority
Increased British Suppression Vernacular Press Act 1878: restricted vernacular press India Councils Act of 1892 & 1909 – Allow for Indian natives to be members of these govt bodies, but little power – Cant propose laws – Cant call for a vote – Cant debate on many subjects – Recognize need for members from both Muslim and Hindu Communities
India 1895 – A Unified Nation? Indian National Congress formed 1885 INC originally pushed for increase council power and for greater economic justice for common people – NOT originally for independence New middle class slowly developing
Other Nationalist Parties Form INC– multi-ethnic, but fairly moderate - Extreme faction splits The Muslim League formed in N. India – fear of Hindu domination in INC Increasing membership in both parties The Unionist Party represent a coalition of Hindu, Muslim and Sikh in Punjab (regional) The Sikh Party: regional, small
Divide and Rule Indian Census of 1871: categorized Indians by religion Created idea of large communities related by religions as opposed to regions, professions, etc. Contributed to idea of electorates based on religion 1907 Partition of Bengal (NE India) - partitioned along communal lines
Indian National Congress Gets a New Leader Leads the INC early in his career, but not official leader later Works through Satyagraha to move India toward independence
New Laws by British
INC has more to fight against Economic Imperialism – destruction of cottage industries Defense of India Act 1915 – The act gave the Governor General in Council the power to make rules...for the purpose of securing the public safety and the defence of British India and as to the powers and duties of public servants and other persons in furtherance of that purpose... Rowlatt Act 1919 : Gave British ability to hold w/o trial anyone thought to be agitating against govt (includes revolutionaries)
British Lighten Up (a bit) 1917 British state publically: India will be independent some day Government of India Act 1919: increased Indian male voting – Certain % of voting based on community: Anglo-Indian, Christians, Sikhs, Muslims, – ***Represents interest groups, not general will of people
But… British Strength Amritsar Massacre 1919
Indian Non-Violent Actions Boycotts of British goods demostrations Protests Salt March 1930 Gandhi – hunger strikes
Salt March 1930 A group of people walk 200+ miles to the sea to collect salt on their own Protest of the tax on salt
Govt of India Act 1935 Gives Provinces & Princely States autonomy: the independence to run their internal affairs Foreign affairs still under the British Would set up a federation Some dont like – what would you think?
WWII & Decline of the British WWII puts Britian in a difficult spot Colonies are expensive British fight for freedom against Hitler, while denying it in colonies Increased nationalism on part of Indians See need for letting go – but how?
Cabinet Mission Group of British sent to help negotiate the end of the British Colony in India What will Independent India look like? Govt type? Voting process? Federation?
Gandhi & INC vs. Jinnah & ML Muslim League worried about Hindus having full control Dont want to be minority