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Emergent Nationalism in India

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Presentation on theme: "Emergent Nationalism in India"— Presentation transcript:

1 Emergent Nationalism in India
India from 1857 to 1947

2 OVERVIEW In this lesson we examine:
Definition and features of colonial rule Gandhi’s philosophy Hindu vs. Muslim nationalism

3 Colonial rule What was ‘colonial rule’?
A direct application of imperialism One country having political control over another country Purposes: settlement, strategy, exploitation, religion

4 The India Act of 1785 established a government within the East India Company. By the 1840s, British control of India was nearly complete. After the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857, the British government took over control from the East India Company. During the 1600s, The East India Company gradually expanded their influence throughout India from their base in Calcutta (Kolkata). As the Mughal Empire declined, the East India Company hired an Indian army to increase their military force.

5 What were the major features of colonial rule in India?
Brutal – Military force was heavily used during the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857 and during the Amritsar massacre Non-inclusive – The British administration rejected Indian customs and traditions – the Mughal emperor was exiled to Burma Non-democratic – The British government ruled directly with no elected representation from the Indian people Which one of these features was in greatest contradiction to British principles and why? What were the major features of colonial rule in India?

6 Gandhi’s philosophy Non-violent protest: Marches Squatting Strikes Fasting Destroying documents and refusing to pay taxes Non-cooperation: Resigning from government positions Renouncing British titles and awards Boycotting British trade and British products Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( ) (aka Mahatma Gandhi) was an English-trained lawyer whose actions in South Africa and India defined his version of ‘civil disobedience’ In what ways could these methods be considered effective as well as ineffective?

7 : After the Amritsar Massacre, Gandhi led a satyagraha campaign against the Rowlatt Acts; he ended the campaign after violence occurred against the authorities. 1930: Gandhi led the “Salt March” to gather sea salt in protest to the British salt tax. 1932: Gandhi fasted in protest to the treatment of India’s “untouchables” – the lowest of the Hindu caste system. : Gandhi and the Congress party refused to support the British in WWII. 1947: Gandhi fasted in protest to the Hindu-Muslim violence taking place after independence; the violence eventually ended. Gandhi’s actions strictly followed his principles and often had an inspiring effect on the Indian people:

8 Hindu vs. Muslim nationalism
Incorporation Gandhi was in favour of a single Indian state in which the rights of all religions and minorities were respected. To this end, he attempted negotiations with the Muslim League for provisions for Indian Muslims. Many Muslim Indians, the largest minority in India, supported efforts at decolonization but believed that they needed a separate state in order to guarantee their rights. Gandhi, as well as a majority of Indians were opposed to the creation of a separate state, but also feared civil war. What options did they have and what were the potential consequences of these actions? Separation In 1940, the Muslim League, led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah passed the Pakistan Resolution which argued in favour of Muslim sovereignty over those provinces which were predominantly Muslim. Why would many Hindu nationalists be against a separate Muslim state?

9 Migration: Up to 12.5 million people were uprooted as Muslims moved towards Pakistan and Hindus moved towards India Violence: Up to one million people might have been killed in the religious fighting along the main border War: Kashmir, a state ruled by Hindu leaders, had a Muslim majority; India attempted to take the state by force and war broke out with Pakistan Separation: East Pakistan separated from West Pakistan in 1971 and became Bangladesh after a brief internal struggle influenced by Indian soldiers What were the short and long term results of the partition of Aug 15, 1947?

10 SUMMARY QUESTIONS What was a definition of colonial rule and how was it applied to British India? What was Gandhi’s interpretation of ‘civil disobedience’ and why was it successful? Why did conflict exist between Indian Hindus and Muslims and how was the partition intended to relieve this conflict? What were the long term results of the partition of India?

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