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The Age of Imperialism Chapter Eleven

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1 The Age of Imperialism Chapter Eleven
British Imperialism in India Section Four

2 British Expand Control Over India: East India Company Dominates
From 1757 to 1858, the East India Company was the leading power in India. It governed an area that included modern Bangladesh, most of southern India, and all the territory along the Ganges River in the north. The company was regulated by the British government, but ruled India with little interference. It had its own army led by British officers and staffed by Indian soldiers called sepoys. Sepoys- Indian soldiers

3 Britain’s “Jewel in the Crown”
India was considered the most valuable of all of Britain’s colonies. It was a major supplier of raw materials and its population of over 300 million was a large market for British goods. The British set up restrictions that prevented the Indian economy from operating on its own. Indian competition with British goods was prohibited.

4 British Transport Trade Goods
Britain established a network of railroads across India to transport goods more efficiently. Plantation crops were the main raw materials transported. These included: tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, jute, and opium. As the Crimean War and American Civil War interrupted the jute and cotton trades, India filled in the gap with their raw materials for British factories.

5 Impact of Colonialism Negatives:
Britain held most political and economic power. Britain restricted Indian owned industries. Cash crops and plantations caused a loss in self-sufficiency for Indian farmers and famines due to reduced food production. The presence of missionaries and a racist attitude by many British officials threatened traditional Indian life.

6 Impact of Colonialism Positive:
Laying of the world’s third largest railroad system. Building of roads, telephone and telegraph lines, dams, bridges, and irrigation canals. Improvements in sanitation and public health. Founding of schools and colleges. Increase in literacy. Cleared land of local bandits and stopped warfare among local rulers.

7 The Sepoy Mutiny: Indians Rebel
By 1850, even though Britain controlled most of India, there was much discontent with British rule. Many Indians believed the British were trying to convert them to Christianity and had no respect for their religious beliefs. In 1857, gossip spread among the sepoys that their rifle cartridges were greased with beef and pork. Both Hindu and Muslim sepoys were outraged. Many refused to use the cartridges and were jailed. This sparked massive protests and eventually a rebellion. The Sepoy Mutiny took more than a year to put down and divided India along Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, and Christian lines.

8 Turning Point The Sepoy Mutiny marked a turning point in Indian history. The British government now took direct control from the East India Company. The part of India under British rule was called Raj. This rule lasted from 1757 to 1947. India was administered by a governor-general called a viceroy. Britain formed alliances with independent Indian states as well as Sikhs and others loyal to Britain. There was much distrust of between Hindus and Muslims, as well as hatred for the increased racist attitudes among many of the British.

9 Nationalism Surfaces in India
In the early 1800’s some Indians began to demand more modernization and a greater role in government. The “Father of Modern India”, Ram Mohun Roy, saw arranged marriages and the cast system as religious practices that needed to be changed if India was to be independent some day. Nationalist feelings began to surface as many Indians were tired of being treated as second class citizens in their own country.

10 Nationalist Groups Form
Growing nationalism led to the formation of two nationalist groups. The Indian National Congress founded in 1885. The Muslim League founded in 1906. Both groups concentrated on specific concern for Indians, but soon also called for self-government. In 1905 the British partitioned Bengal into Muslim and Hindu sections. This action caused great protest and the British were forced to reverse their decision in 1911.

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