2BackgroundBritish economic interest in India began in the 1600s, when the British East India Company set up trading posts Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta.At first, India’s ruling Mughal Dynasty kept European traders under control.By 1707, however, the Mughal Empire was collapsing.
3East India Company Dominates & “Jewel in the Crown” Produces Trade Products The East India Company quickly took advantage of the growing weakness of the Mughal EmpireThe company even had its own army, led by British officers and staffed by sepoys, or Indian SoldiersThe Industrial Revolution had turned Britain into the world’s workshop, and India provided the raw materials for that workshopThe British considered India the brightest “jewel in the crown” – the most valuable of all of Britain’s colonies
4Impact of Colonialism India both benefited from and was oppressed Positive: The laying of the world’s third largest railroad networkThe railroad enabled India to develop a modern economy and brought unity to connecting regionsAlong with railroads, Britain set up a modern road network, telephone and telegraph lines, dams, bridges, and irrigation canals; education and sanitation improved; literacy increasedBritish troops put an end to local warfare among competing local rulersNegative: Britain held much of the political and economic power; they restricted Indian-owned industries; they adopted a hands-off policy regarding Indian customs and religions
5Indians Rebel: Sepoy Rebellion Indians believed that the British were trying to covert them to Christianity in addition to controlling their home land.Many of the sepoys believed that the cartridges for the bullets were sealed with pork & beef. (cows are sacred to the Hindus & Muslims don’t eat pork)Many soldiers refused to take the cartridges, so they were put in jail.The sepoys then rebelled, causing the Sepoy Mutiny.
6Indians Rebel: Turning Point In 1858, the Sepoy Mutiny caused Britain to take direct control over India, this was called the Raj.Sometimes only a few British officers were put in control over a million Indians.Many of the English treated the Indians badly, mostly through racism.One political pamphlet that the Indians “are being ruined under the tyranny and oppression of the treacherous English.
7Indian Nationalist Movements Begin Indians wanted more modernization and a greater role the government.Ram Mohun Roy became the “Father of Modern India” because of his campaigns towards modernization.In the province of Bengal, Britain divided it into a Hindu section and a Muslim section. This caused acts of terrorism, so Britain changed the division.