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Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia. Nationalism after WWI Nationalist activity began in India,Turkey, and some of the Southwest Asian countries.

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Presentation on theme: "Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia. Nationalism after WWI Nationalist activity began in India,Turkey, and some of the Southwest Asian countries."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia

2 Nationalism after WWI Nationalist activity began in India,Turkey, and some of the Southwest Asian countries

3 Indian Nationalism Grows Indians applies European views of nationalism and democracy India Indian National Congress 1885 Muslim League Even though Hindus and Muslim were divided, they had the same goal: Independence

4 Nationalist Activity India wanted self-government Joined the British army –thought they would gain more rights in government But NO, still treated poorly –Angered Indians acted violently –British Governments formed Rowlatt Act : protesters in prison without trial. Educated Indians denied this law, rebelled

5 Amritsar Massacre Hindus and Muslim gather in Amritsar –angered British –British government forbid public meetings. –British commander told the army to kill them-> 400 died wounded –Angered India Loyal Indians revolutionaries and nationalists

6 Mohandas K. Gandhi Gandhi: Leader of Independence movement Politically acted with his religious ideas Called Mahatma = GREAT SOUL ?v=zC-thcJDozQ ?v=zC-thcJDozQ

7 Civil Disobedience Stated principle of satyagraha= truth-force, civil disobedience –Disobeying unfair laws –Gandhi required No Violence –Purpose: weaken British government and economy Dont do things that will help British. Boycott of British cloth –Dropped British cloth sales

8 Salt March Indians could only buy salt from British government walked 240 miles to the seacoast –>Salt March Made their own salt Tried to shut down British salt works, but failed and were attacked by the Police Gandhi and 60,000 people were arrested

9 India Self-Rule Indians gain political power –Government of India Act: providing self- government Helped move closer to full independence –Muslims & Hindus fought for more power Hindus # > Muslims #

10 Nationalism Spreads to S.W. Asia At the same time, Southwest Asian countries wanted independence Each country had separate path Nationalism grew –Ottoman Empire fell –Western countries had interest in SW Asia

11 Turkey Turkey: only part of Ottoman Empire left Mustafa Kemal –(President of Republic of Turkey) –Modernized the nation: Separated laws of Islam & laws of the nation Gave women more rights/freedom-vote, public office

12 Turkey IN and OUT of Ottoman Empire

13 Persia (Iran) Before WWI: Great Britain & Russia =sphere of influence –British wanted all of Persia= irritated Persian nationalists –Persians wanted freedom Pahlavi (new leader) modernized Persia –But kept all power –Changed Persia->Iran PersiaIran Before ~

14 Saudi Arabia Held firmly to Islamic law (unlike Turkey) Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud wanted to unify Arabia –Formed new kingdom: Saudi Arabia Continued Arab & Islamic traditions

15 Oil and Economic Development Nationalism grows in Southwast Asia Industrialized countries needed petroleum products oil interest in Southwest Asia Huge oil countries: Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait Persian Gulf: 2/3 of worlds oil Westerners try to get those oil regions


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