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Small Animal Damage Control Hank Uhden WY Dept. Of Agriculture.

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Presentation on theme: "Small Animal Damage Control Hank Uhden WY Dept. Of Agriculture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Small Animal Damage Control Hank Uhden WY Dept. Of Agriculture

2 Small Animal Damage Control Manual & Handouts Purpose of Training Training Outline: Commonly Used Products Commonly Controlled Animals Need for Control or Disease Vectors Bird Control Diseases of Major Health Concern Plague, Rabies, Hantavirus INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION

3 Small Animal Damage Control Reduce and/or Eliminate Economic Loss Access the Damage Positive Pest Identification Objective of Control Program Who ?... Me !?!

4 Small Animal Damage Control Preventive or Protective Control Habitat Alteration Removal of Food Supply Exclusion Aversion Techniques Repellents Pyrotechnics Scare Devices Trapping, Lethal & Non-lethal Epizootics Toxicants Shooting Correct Control Solution

5 Small Animal Damage Control Bait Food item w/ toxicant Lethal Dose (LD) LD LD Milligrams of toxicant / kilogram of body weight Lower LD s are more toxic Toxicology

6 Small Animal Damage Control Grains Commonly Used: Barley, Wheat, Oats Grains: Whole Mechanically Altered Dependent upon 1) Pest to be controlled; 2) Site of Application; 3) Protection of non- targets Toxicology

7 Small Animal Damage Control Label Equipment Poison Skull & Crossbones Wear Respirator Never carry toxicants in passenger compartment Prohibit: Smoking, eating, or other hand to mouth contact Safety Precautions

8 Small Animal Damage Control Rodenticides Rodent Control Rodenticides are substances or a mixture of substances intended for destroying, repelling, or mitigating rodents.

9 Small Animal Damage Control Rodenticides Rodent Control Color Additives: Protect seed eating birds Aid in bait identification Aid in bait preparation Prevent accidental human consumption Prevent diversion for use as livestock feed

10 Small Animal Damage Control Specific Products Commonly Used Strychnine Zinc Phosphide Anticoagulants Aluminum Phosphide

11 Small Animal Damage Control Strychnine ALL ABOVE GROUND USES HAVE BEEN CANCELLED Uses limited to below ground - pocket gophers only Acute, single dose toxicant White, bitter tasting powder - Made from seeds of the Asian strychnos nux vomica tree

12 Small Animal Damage Control Strychnine Available only in an alkaloid form Almost insoluble in water Will breakdown if exposed to heat & light Other characteristics Is not cumulative Has a slight odor Is not selective Toxic to most animals Rapidly absorbed - effects rapid

13 Small Animal Damage Control Zinc Phosphide PRE-BAITING IS NECESSARY! Use restricted to July - December Prozap (HAACO) allows use in WY March 1 - June 30 (SLN - 24c) Labeled for: meadow mice, voles, ground squirrels, prairie dogs, various species of rats and other rodents.

14 Small Animal Damage Control Zinc Phosphide Characteristics: Heavy, finely ground gray-black powder Strong, pungent, garlic like odor Insoluble in water & alcohol Reacts with acids readily Less toxic than strychnine Slowest acting of the commonly used rodenticides

15 Small Animal Damage Control Anticoagulants Characteristics: Reduce clotting ability of blood Death occurs from internal & external bleeding Affected animals die quietly Poison of choice in and near cities Little danger to domestic animals Available as dry bait, or water soluble Vitamin K is the antidote

16 Small Animal Damage Control Aluminum Phosphide Characteristics: Registered for control of various burrowing rodents (e.g. Prairie dogs) Tablet form Moisture produces phosphine gas Labeled for outdoor use only Rangeland & pastures Non-cropland areas

17 Small Animal Damage Control Gas Cartridges Produces carbon monoxide Unrestricted use product - easy to use Precautions: Do not use near buildings or flammable materials Carbon Monoxide is odorless, colorless Labeled uses: Small Gas Cartridge: burrowing rodents Large Gas Cartridge: coyotes, skunks

18 Small Animal Damage Control Vertebrate Pests Commonly Controlled Prairie Dogs Pocket Gophers Ground Squirrels Porcupines Moles Skunks BatsBirds

19 Small Animal Damage Control Baiting Zinc Phosphide requires pre-baiting Prairie Dogs Best when green forage is not available Use one (1) teaspoon of bait/burrow Fumigants Clean-up following bait applications

20 Small Animal Damage Control Precautions Always wear gloves Prairie Dogs When working with toxicants When handling carcasses - host to plague infected fleas Black-Footed Ferret Searches Dependent upon size of treatment area, species of prairie dog

21 Small Animal Damage Control General Information: Extensive underground burrow system Pocket Gopher Eat plant roots & stems. Girdle trees or clip tree roots Mounds are horseshoe shaped Active in winter

22 Small Animal Damage Control Control: Most Effective: Toxicants and traps Pocket Gopher 0.5% Strychnine Oats Large or heavily infested areas - use burrow builder Hand baiting, fumigation, or trapping for small areas

23 Small Animal Damage Control General: More destructive than prairie dogs - larger numbers & range Ground Squirrels Estivation - tend to live in one place Active year around Host to plague infected fleas

24 Small Animal Damage Control Control: Fumigants Gas Cartridges Ground Squirrels Trapping Toxicants

25 Small Animal Damage Control Classified as a rodent Primarily inhabit forested areas Porcupines Do not hibernate, rest in same place Damage: Girdle pine trees, eat fruits, alfalfa, sweet corn Control: Trapping and/or shooting

26 Small Animal Damage Control Classified as a rodent Pest of gardens, lawns, flower beds Moles Rarely surface above ground Most damage caused when digging Voles, white-footed mice, house mice, other animals utilize tunnels, cause damage often blamed on moles

27 Small Animal Damage Control Control: Exclusion Moles Cultural: Re-packing soil, reduce soil moisture Repellents: Onions/garlic around gardens Toxicants: Will not take bait readily Fumigants Trapping: Only effective method

28 Small Animal Damage Control Member of the weasel family Classified as a predator Skunks Plant & animal foods - insects preferred Will eat small mammals Classified insectivorous

29 Small Animal Damage Control Health risk: Rabies Skunks Habitat: Clearings, pastures, prairies Usually a den - hollow logs, under buildings Dormant during extreme cold Most reports come in early spring and fall

30 Small Animal Damage Control Control Preventive control foremost - Seal Openings Skunks Trapping - Lethal & live traps Shooting Large gas cartridge Toxicants - NONE

31 Small Animal Damage Control Bats Most bats are protected under the Migratory Bird Act Heres your problem - a bunch of bats in your chimney!

32 Small Animal Damage Control Bats Insectivorous Not aggressive, but will bite if handled Health risk: rabies & encephalitis Control: Exclusion (permanent solution) Ultrasonic devices - not effective, some attract bats Naphthalene Flakes (Moth balls) Toxicants - NONE

33 Small Animal Damage Control Bird Control Migratory birds - 50 CFR 21 Game & Fish Chapter LII Non-game Regulations Statutes define: Predacious bird means English sparrow and starling May be taken any time during the calendar year in Wyoming Legal to destroy nest & eggs

34 Small Animal Damage Control Bird Control Statutes Define: Protected bird means migratory birds as defined and protected under federal law Diseases: Histoplasmosis Tuberculosis Cholera Parrot Fever

35 Small Animal Damage Control Bird Control Urban sanitation problems - pigeons, sparrows, starlings, and increasingly geese Control: Habitat manipulation Aversion Exclusion Trapping & baiting

36 Small Animal Damage Control Bird Control Control - continued: Toxicants (Avicides) & lethal methods - legality? Chemosterilants Nest destruction Poison baits Carcasses picked up Eagles most at risk Contact poisons Toxic perches Surfactant or detergent solutions

37 Small Animal Damage Control Bird Control Methods most effective when used intermittently, in combination with other techniques AND before birds establish regular feeding habits

38 Small Animal Damage Control - Diseases - Highest Exposure Risk Plague Rabies Hantavirus

39 Small Animal Damage Control Plague Bacteria Yersinia Pestis First discovered in Yellowstone Nat. Park Predominant in prairie dog populations Causes sudden, unexplained die-offs Not prevalent in big game populations Does exist in feline, canine, squirrel, rabbit, chipmunk and other commensal rodent populations

40 Small Animal Damage Control Plague Human contact plague in 3 ways: Flea bite Unprotected contact Airborne particles Flea associated with human plague does not exist in Wyoming Rodent flea though will feed on humans if the opportunity arises

41 Small Animal Damage Control Plague Last 80 years, all cases of respiratory (pneumonic) plague have been contracted from house cats Chances of contracting plague are small Treatable if caught in time Symptoms similar to flu Wear impervious gloves (rubber latex) when skinning wild animals Most at risk are hunters & trappers

42 Small Animal Damage Control Plague Three types of plague: Bubonic - Flea bite Septicemic - Fluids from infected animal Pneumonic - Secondary/Respiratory droplets Control of plague vector Sevin Dust

43 Small Animal Damage Control Rabies People at high risk can be vaccinated Any animal is capable of contracting, carrying, and transmitting Rabies can be latent Occurs most often in spring and fall Virus remains active even if frozen Death is not always probable

44 Small Animal Damage Control Rabies Animals with rabies or suspected cases: Cage the animal, notify public health officer A rabid dog may: Bite other animals or moving objects Seizures, muscle incoordination Die by progressive paralysis

45 Small Animal Damage Control Rabies Bats with rabies may be controlled with tracking powders Skunks - for testing Shoot in body, ship head to State Vet Lab Rabies can be contracted through open wounds or breaks in the skin Wear impervious gloves when skinning wild animals

46 Small Animal Damage Control Hantavirus Deer mouse is primary carrier Transmitted by: Direct contact with mice Inhaling airborne particles No known person to person transmission Infection in cats is rare Similar virus to hemorrhagic fever - no known cure

47 Small Animal Damage Control Hantavirus Causes flu-like symptoms Safety Precautions: Controlling rodents, cleaning areas: Wet mop Wear rubber or latex gloves Wear a HEPA filter - Not paper Eliminate compatible environment Disinfection and cleaning bleach

48 Small Animal Damage Control Summary More rodent & predator information: Dept. Of Agriculture: Control Information: QUESTIONS ?


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