Presentation on theme: "Plague in Humans: A Bubo Formed in the Groin"— Presentation transcript:
1Plague in Humans: A Bubo Formed in the Groin Microbe of the day: Yersinia pestisPlague in Humans: A Bubo Formed in the GroinPlague is an infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, a naturally occurring bacterium found primarily in wild rodents. Plague has been the cause of three of the great pandemics of the modern era—in the mid-6th century, the mid-14th century (known as the Black Death), and the early 20th century.Three forms of naturally-occurring plague infection exist:Pneumonic plague is the result of Y. pestis infection of the lungs. Primary pneumonic plague would be the expected form of disease following an aerosol attack with Y. pestis. Secondary pneumonic plague may occur if bubonic or septicemic plague goes untreated and the plague bacteria are allowed to spread to the lungs.Bubonic plague is the most common form of naturally occurring plague, typically acquired through the bite of an infected flea. Bubonic plague is characterized primarily by swollen, tender lymph nodes (called buboes).Septicemic plague is the result of plague bacteria multiplying in the blood and disseminating throughout the body. Septicemic plague usually occurs as a result of untreated bubuonic or pneumonic plague.
2Microbe of the day: Yersinia pestis PlaguePandemic plague has caused more human deaths than any other infectious disease except for malaria and tuberculosisCaused by Yersinia pestis, a gram-negative facultatively aerobic rod-shaped bacteriumDisease of domestic and wild rodentsHumans are accidental hosts and are not critical for maintenance of the diseaseFleas are intermediate hosts and vectors that spread plague between mammalian hostsY. pestis produces virulence factors that contribute to the disease processPlague is also called bubonic plague because of the development of buboes in the infected individualPlague can be successfully treated if it is rapidly diagnosedTreatment with gentamycin or streptomycinIt treatment is started promptly, mortality is only 1-5% of those infected
3Microbe of the day: Yersinia pestis The causative organism, the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has a rodent reservoir.The rodents' fleas, such as the oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, acquire Y. pestis from a meal of infected blood, and transmit the bacterium primarily to other rodents or to humans, causing bubonic plague in people. Human-to-human transmission can also take place, through the human flea Pulex irritans. Pneumonic plague is less frequent but even more severe; it is transmitted from person to person through respiratory droplets, or even by artificially generated aerosols, containing Y. pestis.
4The Epidemiology of Plague Due to Yersinia pestis Microbe of the day: Yersinia pestisThe Epidemiology of Plague Due to Yersinia pestisFlea, Vector of Yersinia pestis (Plague).
5Microbe of the day: Yersinia pestis Causative Agent of Plague in HumansAntoine Jean Gros, "Pest House at Jaffa”, 1804. Napoleon Visits Soldiers Dying of Plague Peter Bruegel (the elder) "Triumph of Death" (Black Plague