Presentation on theme: " Define terms associated with integrated pest management. Differentiate between biological, cultural/physical control, and chemical pest management."— Presentation transcript:
Define terms associated with integrated pest management. Differentiate between biological, cultural/physical control, and chemical pest management practices. List the proper equipment and clothing to use when applying chemicals. Explain the importance of pesticide label information.
Biological control Chemical control Cultural control Fungicide Herbicide Insecticide Integrated pest management LD factor Miticide Nematocide Pest Pesticide Toxicity
Living organism that can cause injury or loss. Types: › Insects › Disease › Weeds › Mites › Nematodes › Parasites › Animals
Pest damage- 1/3 the total crop production potential Methods are available to minimize or eliminate losses that pests cause. Economic injury level Economic threshold
The point at which the cost of pest control equals the revenue loss caused by a pest Determined by estimatin the potential yield loss, the value of the crop, and the cost of treatment Clearly defines how much damage can be tolerated.
Number of insects per plant or the amount of damage to the plant that economically justifies the use of control measures If a control is applied when a pest population reaches the economic threshold, the population will be suppressed before it reaches the economic injury level.
An ecologically based approach to controlling plant pests Organized program in which the best management methods available are used to keep pest populations below the economic injury level.
Pest-control strategy that relies on multiple control practices Establishes the amount of damage that will be tolerated before control actions are taken.
Use of a scout (either the grower or a hired individual) who regularly monitors pest populations and crop conditions › Collect data about which pests are causing damage, stage of life, whether the population is increasing or decreasing
Knowing how to identify key pests and their biological characteristics is important. › Weakest link must be found. › Key pest- one that occurs on a regular basis for a given crop.
An understanding of the biology of the crop and its ecosystem Ecosystem of the crop consists of the biotic and abiotic influences in the living environment. › Biotic- living organisms › Abiotic- nonliving factors
Help sustain the ability of the earth to meet the needs of an increasing human population. Benefits agriculture and the environment.
Reduced contamination Fewer residues on food Improved human health
Biological Chemical Cultural Mechanical Genetic
Use of living organisms to reduce pest populations Beneficial organisms are natural enemies of pests. Parasites, predators, and pathogens are all used as biological controls.
Use of pesticides to reduce pest populations Pesticide resistance- the ability of an organism to tolerate a lethal level of a pesticide Pest resurgence- refers to a pest’s ability to repopulate after control measures have been eliminated or reduced.
Used to make the crop environment unsuitable for pests to feed, live, or reproduce Also used to improve crop health Examples: soil tillage, crop rotation, adjustment of harvest or planting dates, irrigation schemes, variety selection, clean culture, and trap crops
Used to physically remove or exclude pests Includes hand destruction and the use of screens and traps Federal and state governments have created laws that prevent the entry or spread of known pests into uninfested areas (regulatory control)
Use of genetically engineered organisms to fight pests Plant breeders are constantly working to develop varieties and hybrids that are resistant to or tolerant of pests.
Pesticide - materials used to control pests › Insecticide › Miticides › Fungicides › Herbicides › Rodenticides › Nematocides › Molluscicides
Pesticide can enter the body through four main routes: › Oral exposure › Dermal exposure › Inhalation exposure › Eye exposure
Toxicity - degree of poison in a material Amount of active ingredients in a material and the chemical nature of the poison determine the toxicity.
Method used to measure toxicity differs between types of exposure LD factor - lethal dose; amount necessary to cause death › used to measure oral and dermal toxicity › Lower LD= more toxicity Lethal Concentration (LC) › Used to measure inhalation toxicity › Lower LC= more poisonous pesticide
Provides information about the active ingredient › Active ingredient kills the pest. Front panel provides only basic information › Classification (general or restricted use) › Brand name › Formulation › Common name › Ingredients › Signal words › Precautionary statements › Establishment number
Side and back panels provide more detailed information. › Hazardous materials warning labels › Directions for use › Notice of limitations