1 ES Hwang Inorganic Product Specialist PerkinElmer Korea AAnalyst 600ES HwangInorganic Product SpecialistPerkinElmer Korea
2 … the best dedicated THGA furnace system AAnalyst 600…FeaturesDedicated THGA furnaceHigh sensitivity segmented solid-state photodiode detectorSimultaneous measurement of sample and reference beamsTransversely heated graphite furnaceLongitudinal Zeeman effect background correctionBenefitsTHGA furnace reduces interferences in difficult matricesExceptional analytical performance and detection limitsHighest Long-term StabilityMinimized interferences and memory effectsShorter analysis time (fast furnace programs)Best possible background correction with no light loss… the best dedicated THGA furnace system
3 AAnalyst 600 AA Spectrometers AAnalyst 700 in flame operationHere we see the AAnalyst 700 in flame operation.Note that the instrument you see is both a flame and graphite furnace (HGA) instrument, all in one instrument.The footprint of this instrument is no bigger than that of our established 4110 ZL or SIMAA 6000 instrument and only marginally bigger than the AAnalyst 300Consequently the AAnalyst 700/800 offer considerable savings with respect to laboratory bench space.Note also the front sample tray, of cast aluminium alloy, with a corrosion resistant coating (tested against aqua regia and organic solvents) and able to support the optional FIAS, AutoPrep 50 and AS90/91 autosamplers.2
4 AAnalyst 600 Revolutionary Optical System Optical System of the AAnalyst 700/800The lamps are arranged in a rack-style lamp holder on the left hand side.The specific lamp is selected by the plane mirror and the height and focus by the torroidal mirror, near the D2 lamp.The sample and reference beams are generated by a 50:50 beam splitter. The sample light beam is passed through the atomizer and focussed into the monochromator as with any other AA.Reflected back from the beam splitter, the reference beam is focussed behind the sample compartment into a high performance fiber optic that brings the reference beam into the monochromator at a different height to the sample beam.Both sample and reference beams pass simultaneously through the monochromator before reaching different segments of the solid state detector.Unlike conventional double-beam AAs, whereby the sample and reference beams are separated in time by means of a mechanical chopper, here they are separated in space.The sample and reference measurements are made simultaneously. This means there is more time available to measure the sample and reference signals within each measurement cycle, which leads to improvements in signal/noise and precision.
5 AAnalyst 600 Unique Features First AA spectrometerIntegrated furnaceZeeman-THGA graphite furnaceUnique Features of the AAnalyst 700/800 SpectrometersPerkin-Elmer has developed the first AA spectrometer with fully integrated flame and furnace capabilities.The change between flame and furnace is automatic per software command, and then a motorized carriage and arm moves one of the atomizers down and to the side and brings the other atomizer up into the light beam.The alignment of the atomizer in the light beam is fully automatic, and no longer requires user intervention unlike conventional manual systems.The furnace system is either a Massmann-type longitudinally heated HGA with D2 background correction (AAnalyst 700)or Zeeman-effect background corrected transversely heated THGA atomizer (AAnalyst 800)In the AAnalyst 700 or 800 the full dynamic range and versatility of AA is contained in one compact instrument.
6 AAnalyst 600 Unique Features First AA spectrometer8-lamp holderAutomatic lamp selection and adjustmentBuilt-in power suppliesHollow cathode lampsElectrodeless discharge lampsAdditional Features of AAnalyst 700/800 AA SpectrometersAlthough the flame furnace changeover is automated, that is but a small part of the total automation built-in to these instruments.An 8 lamp holder, can contain up to 8 hollow cathode lamps or up to 4 electrodeless discharge lamps (EDLs), with an additional 4 hollow cathode lamps.The power supplies are built-in, so no external power supply is required for the EDLsLamp alignment is also automatic, so just insert the coded Lumina lamp, shut the door and the instrument does the rest, automatically aligning the lamp for maximum light throughput and setting the wavelength and slit.Non-coded lamps can be used, though these have to be defined in the Align Lamps window of the AA WinLab software, but alignment is still automatic.The motorized moving atomizer allows automatic alignment of the flame or furnace in the light beam. Manual controls are also available to allow users to select different conditions, especially for flame, to reduce or eliminate interferences.
7 AAnalyst 600 Highly Versatile Furnace Autosampler User Benefits:Automatic generation of reference solutionsAutomatic multiple injectionsAutomatic dilutionAutomatic injection into a preheated tubeVariable pipetting speedEase-of-operation
8 AAnalyst 600 Revolutionary Optical System Real time double beam systemHigh sensitivity segmented solid-state photodiode detectorUser Benefits:Exceptional analytical performanceHighest Long-term StabilityOptical SystemThe AAnalyst 700/800 AA spectrometers are not only automated but offer major technical advances with respect to optical design and the detector.The AAnalyst 700/800 have a real time double beam system along with a high sensitivity segmented solid-state photodiode detector.The use of a new optical design and the solid state detector allows the simultaneous measurement of the sample and reference beams.The optical design allows double beam operation in flame mode and single beam operation for furnace operation.This overcomes the traditional compromise between double and single-beam systems for flame or furnace operation.The AAnalyst 700/800 does not have any compromises, for each technique, flame or furnace etc, the optimum optical configuration is used.This provides, exceptional long term stability and optimum analytical performance for flame and furnace.
9 AAnalyst 600 Customized Solid-State Detector Highest quantum efficiencyIntegrated low noise CMOS charge amplifier arrayExceptional signal-to-noise ratioCustomized Solid-State DetectorThe picture above is a close-up picture of the solid-state segmented photodiode detector. On the left is the CMOS amplifier array.On the right is the actual detector, which is composed on 9 segments. The 9 segments are due to the improvements in signal to noise gained rather than using two large photodiodes.The diagram below shows the break down of the various detector elements.
10 AAnalyst 600 Quantum Efficiency of Detectors photomultipliersolid state detectorQuantum Efficiency of Solid-state Detector vs PMTThe quantum efficiencies of the AAnalyst 700/800 segmented photodiode solid-state detector and of the R928 photomultiplier tube used in the 4110 ZL are compared.The quantum efficiency of the solid state detector is seen to be significantly higher throughout the wavelength range.The response of the solid-state detector is optimized at near 200 nm so that the factor in this region is about five.
11 AAnalyst 600 Furnace (THGA) Instrument Detection Limits THGA Instrument detection limits (IDL) / pgElement PMT PhotodiodeAsCrCuMnPbTlAAnalyst 800 Furnace (THGA) Instrument Detection LimitsFor THGA operation, in the AAnalyst 800, the beam splitter is moved to the side and the optical system is in single beam mode.This avoids any loss of light from the reference beam as this is not required in furnace mode as the Baseline Offset Correction (BOC) corrects for any optical or electronic drift prior to each reading.The THGA instrument detection limits show similar or improved detection limits to those obtained by a conventional PMT equipped, THGA system.
12 AAnalyst 600 Automatic Lamp Selector 8-Lamp holderBuilt-in power supplies for hollow cathode and electrodeless discharge lampsAutomatic alignment, element, wavelength and slit selectionAutomatic Lamp SelectorThis picture shows the 8 lamp holder, filled with Perkin-Elmer Lumina hollow cathode lamps.The power supplies are built-in, so no external power supply is required for the EDLsLamp alignment is also automatic, so just insert the coded Lumina lamp, shut the door and the instrument does the rest, automatically aligning the lamp for maximum light throughput and setting the wavelength and slit.Non-coded lamps can be used, though these have to be defined in the Align Lamps window of the AA WinLab software, but alignment is still automatic.
13 AAnalyst 600 Unique Overall Conception Total system control via AA WinLab32 software for highest versatility and simplest operating convenienceAtomizer controlLamp and lamp current controlTHGA controlAccessory controlTotal Range & Total Control AAThe AAnalyst 700/800 instruments represent not only the ultimate in ease of use and operating convenience with respect to hardware, but the AA WinLab software, takes these concepts further and applies them to the whole system.Clear, easy to use control windows allow optimisation and control of all the major instrumental parameters.The AAnalyst 700/800 with AA WinLab will set these automatically, but the control windows allow you to make changes should you so wish, or in the early days confirm that the instrument ‘got-it-right’ until you gain confidence in the instruments capabilities!
14 AAnalyst 600 Unique Software Conception Automatic system setup from stored user’s methodsDirect from WorkspaceMethodSample informationIndividual screen design, window selection etc.User Benefits:Analytical reliabilityEase-of-operationTime-saving‘Two clicks and your’re in business’ Software!The AA WinLab software allows a high degree of flexibility and control over your methods and analyses.But once your methods are created, along with your own personal ‘Workspaces’, you can easily recall individual screen arrangements of different windows, along with your method, sample information file etc, and you are ready to start work.Unlimited numbers of workspaces can be created, allowing you to tailor AA WinLab to not yours but also your colleagues wishes. This provides a high degree of usability not found in many competitive products.This gives you:Analytical reliability, methods are recalled easily and quicklyEase of operation and reduced training requirementsReduced time spent in setting up the instrument and less errorsFrom the AA WinLab opening screen, opening and selecting a Workspace takes 2 mouse clicks - what could be simpler?
15 Bringing a new level of productivity to high-performance AA WinLab32 for AABringing a new level of productivity to high-performance AA
16 AA WinLab32 - Features and Benefits Improve productivityData Reprocessing *WinLab32 Offline *Priority samples *Append to Analysis List *Edit CalibrationRecall CalibrationFurnace Method Development wizard *Improve ease of use and reduce trainingTool tips (available in 6 languages) *Wizards *Analysis List *AS-93 parameters integrated ** New features not present in 16-bit AA WinLab
17 AA WinLab32 - Features and Benefits Reduce training and supportCommon look and feel with WinLab32 for ICP-OESCD Document PackImprove stability and data accessibilityAccess database *Method and data securityPassword protection *Multiple user levels *Data check sums to detect changes *21 CFR Part 11 Compliant* New features not present in 16-bit AA WinLab
18 WinLab32 for AA Workspace Status MonitorToolbarAutomated AnalysisResultsCalibrationCommon look and feel with WinLab32 for ICP for easy cross platform training
19 Recalculation of analytical data Data ReprocessingRecalculation of analytical dataCorrect SIF errorsChange calibration functionDelete replicate(s)Performed using the raw dataSamples can be reprocessed in any sequenceOriginal data are preservedAnalytical log can be printedReprocessed data are identified
20 Data Reprocessing Status display Select samples in the order you want them reprocessed.Change sample information in these columns
21 Furnace Method Development Wizard Define SolutionsTo AnalyzeDefine FurnaceSteps to cycleTemperaturesAnalyze Solutions and Display Results
24 Samples can be added without interrupting current analyses Priority SampleSamples can be added without interrupting current analyses
25 Exporting Data to LABWORKS Export data to LABWORKS
26 WinLab32 Enhanced Security Option Enhancement to WinLab32 for AA (and ICP)Significant set of new featuresAudit trailsFile versioningEnable compliance with new regulations21 CFR Part 11 - Pharmaceutical40 CFR Part 3 - Environmental (proposed)OthersPrimarily for highly regulated laboratoriesUsers actions are restrictedIncreased storage space requirementsAdditional information entry requirementsRequires more system housekeeping
27 AAnalyst 600 Total Range Graphite Furnace AA THGA-type furnace with Zeeman-effect background correctionUser Benefits:Selection of the best system for individual requirements and budgetsHigh performance, near interference-free trace analysis with STPF conceptTotal Range Graphite Furnace AAThe AAnalyst 700 is equipped with a Massmann-type longitudinally heated graphite furnace with D2 background correction.The AAnalyst 800 is equipped with a transversely heated graphite furnace with Zeeman-effect background correction.This allows the user to choose the graphite furnace system that best meets their requirements and budgets.Clearly, if the only graphite furnace need was the determination of Pb in drinking water, then the AAnalyst 700 would be fine.However, if this included the determination of Pb in waste water, sludges etc, then the AAnalyst 800 with Zeeman-effect background correction would be the best choice.Both systems use graphite tubes with integrated platforms, which provide improved performance and allow a full implementation of Stabilised Platform Furnace Technology (STPF) which provided near interference-free graphite furnace analyses.
28 AAnalyst 600 Integrated THGA Furnace System THGA Graphite FurnaceThe AAnalyst 800 is equipped with a THGA graphite furnace. This picture shows the THGA unit mounted in the light beamThe compact THGA graphite furnace head is PTFE coated to provide outstanding resistance to corrosive vapours/atmospheres.
29 AAnalyst 600 Zeeman THGA Furnace Transversely heated graphite furnaceLongitudinal Zeeman effect background correctionUser Benefits:Exceptional detection limitsMinimized interferences and memory effectsBest possible background correctionMimimum sample preparation timeShorter analysis time (fast furnace programs)Zeeman THGA Graphite FurnaceThere is no simpler graphite furnace available than the THGA. Only one tube, no alignment required after insertion of a new tube, no insertion of a platform required, along with pneumatic opening and closing of the furnace for increased reliability are some of the features that guarantee ease of use.The THGA graphite furnace provides:Exceptional detection limits for volatile and refractory elementsReduced interferences due to a constant temperature over the whole tube lengthZeeman-effect background correction
30 AAnalyst 600 Integrated THGA System THGA Concept: more than 2500 systems in useLongitudinal Zeeman- Effect: highly resolved background compensation without light lossDC furnace power supplyClosest approach to the "ideal system"Integrated THGA SystemMore than 2500 THGA units are in operation around the world.The uniform temperature distribution of the THGA graphite tube design allows full implementation of STPF. Interferences and memory effects are reduced due to the absence of cold tube ends where matrix or analyte may condense.Longitudinal Zeeman-effect background correction does not require the use of a polarizer, ensuring that optimum detection limits are obtained due to the high light throughput.The new DC power supply complies with the DIN/EN-Norm to be enforced in 2001.The THGA represents the closest commercial approach to an ‘ideal’ graphite furnace atomizer.
31 AAnalyst 600 Integrated THGA System Atomic andbackground signalsfor Ba, 20uL, 25 ug/LAtomic and background signals for BaImprovements have not only been made to the optical and detector systems in the AAnalyst 800 instrument but also to the furnacer power supply.To conform with European safety power regulations (DIN/EN-Norm) to be enforced in the year 2001, a new DC power supply for both the AAnalyst 700 (HGA) and AAnalyst 800 (THGA) has been implemented.This system controls the temperature and heating rate and ensures that the heating rate is independent of the mains voltage and in addition, there is no noise contribution by AC emission from the graphite tube.The effects of this new power supply are clearly seen in this atomization signal for Ba. Normally, far more noise is seen on this signal from a conventional, transformer heated graphite furnace system. Here a smooth, relatively noise-free signal is produced.The benefits of the THGA system are also seen. Although Ba is a refractory element and forms a stable carbide in the graphite furnace, the uniform temperatures within the THGA system ensure that the signal returns quickly to the baseline and memory effects are considerably reduced.
32 AAnalyst 600 Zeeman versus D2 Background Correction Background correction independent of wavelengthTrue double-beam with only one optical pathBaseline noise at least 2x lowerOptical resolution Dl is 100x betterChar. mass typically 10 and 20 % poorer than with D2 (the m0 for the worst case, Cu, is 50% poorer)Zeeman-effect background correction gives superior detection limits in real samplesZeeman-effect versus D2 background correctionThe advantages of Zeeman-effect background correction are the following:Background correction is independent of wavelength, with D2, much correction much beyond 360 nm is difficult due to the reduced D2 lamp intensity.Zeeman-effect provides true double beam performance with only one optical path through the system.As there is only one light source then the baseline noise is much lower which generally leads to an improvement in detection limitsZeeman-effect background correction is accepted by nearly all manufacturers as the the best background correction system for unkown samples, difficult matrices etc.The only disdvantage to Zeeman-effect background correction is the reduced sensitivity for those elements with anomalous splitting, which is generally 10-20%. The worst case is Cu, with a 50% reduction, but the absolute sensitivuty for Cu in the graphite furnace is good, such that this rarely causes a problem. In addition, this loss in sensitivity is easily overcome by taking a slightly larger sample volume.
33 AAnalyst 600 Highly Versatile Furnace Autosampler High-capacity, interchangeable sample trays88 or 146 sample positionsFull AA WinLab32 control including multi-taskingUser Benefits:Automatic generation of reference solutionsAutomatic multiple injectionsAutomatic dilutionAutomatic injection into a preheated tubeVariable pipetting speedEase-of-operationAS 800 Graphite Furnace AutosamplerThe AS 800 is a new design of autosampler, preserving the tried and tested features of the previous autosampler such as the AS 70/72, but addressing the comments we have received back from our users.The tray sizes have been increased to allow increased throughput and allow the system to run all night not just for a short period:80 x 2 ml + 8 x 7 ml130 x 1.2 ml + 8 x 2 ml + 8 x 7 mlAll plastic construction to reduce corrosionPipette arm is stepper motor controlled allowing reproducible setting of depth in sample cup and graphite tube.With control of the autosampler via the AA WinLab software this allows:Automatic generation of reference solutions and calibration curvesMultiple injections for in-tube preconcentrationAutomatic dilution of over-range samplesFull control of the autosampler sequence and actionsEase of use.
34 AAnalyst 600 Flow Injection - Furnace Coupling Optional accessory for coupling FI-MHS with furnace AASoftware controlled automatic operationUser Benefits:Detection limits in range of ng/LTime-savings by automatic on-line operationLess interferences since matrix components are removed in the FI systemFlow Injection-Furnace CouplingWith the optional FIAS-Furnace coupling kit, Hg or hydride vapours from a FIAS system are transported directly to the furnace via a special autosampler quartz capillary where they are trapped on the Ir-coated graphite surface.Both the FIAS and furnace systems are automatically controlled from the AA WinLab software.Following trapping, the furnace starts a short program to flush the graphite tube free of water vapour before atomization.This technique provides significant improvements in relative detection limits, over 100 times better compared with conventional hydride generation equipment.In addition to ng/L detection limits and fully automated on-line operation, FI-furnace AA also reduces potential interferences with the complete removal of matrix components prior to analysis and the high atomization efficiency of the furnace.
35 AAnalyst 600 Automatic Slurry Sampling Optional ultrasonic probe integrated in the autosamplerAutomatic introduction of solid samples as slurriesFull software controlUser Benefits:Reduced sample preparation and analysis timeReduced potential for contaminationEasy operationAutomatic Slurry Sampling with the USS 800The new USS 800 Ultrasonic slurry sampler accessory is a completely new design of slurry sampler to allow analysis of slurry samples, such as refractory materials and those difficult to digest.The USS 800 fits conveniently under the main AS 800 unit and is fully controlled from AA WinLab.The slurry sampler is moved by means of stepper motors, which allows greater control of the positioning and depth of the probe along with movement speed.Slurry sampling has major benefits in reducing the sample preparation time and the risk of contamination, especially for samples that previously required a complicated digestion procedure.With full control of the slurry sampler integrated into the AA WinLab software, implementation of slurry sampling into the range of graphite furnace analyses becomes much easier.
36 What else can PerkinElmer offer? Sample Preparation SolutionsMultiwave 3000High Pressure Asher (HPA)Flow Injection Technology (FIAS)For sample pre-treatmentHydride generationStand-alone Mercury systems (FIMS)Sample Introduction SystemsAutodilutorsLaser Ablation systemsWorld class service and support
38 FIAS – Flow Injection Systems 2 ModelsFIAS 100 (1 valve, 1 pump)FIAS 400 (1 valve, 2 pumps)Automated sampling for Flame AADilutionAdd reagents or modifiersMatrix removalPreconcentrationImproved sample handlingSmall sample volumesHigh solids samplesHydride generationDetermination of As, Se, Te, Be, Sb, SnFIAS 100 systemFIAS 400 system
39 Flow Injection Mercury Systems FIMS 400Determines Mercury via Cold Vapor AA (CVAA)Small footprintFully automatedEasy to operateStand alone systemCost effectiveNow with WinLab32 for AA software
40 Easiest, simplest AA furnace Full automation Full range of accessories AAnalyst 600 ConclusionsNot just another AA!No compromises!Easiest, simplest AA furnaceFull automationFull range of accessoriesPower of AA WinLab32 softwareUltimate in performanceThe AA instrument to take you beyondAAnalyst 700/800 ConclusionsThe AAnalyst 700/800 AA spectrometers are not just another AA!These instruments represent state-of-the-art technology, and no compromises have been accepted, new technology has been implemented to meet the requirements of what routine AA users were telling us that they needed.These are the simplest, easiest to use, fully integrated flame and furnace AAsWhat can be automated, is automated, and along with the outstanding capabilities of the AA WinLab software provides total automation for all techniques and types of analyses.A full range of fully compatible accessories means that all sample handling and processing needs can be addressed.The AAnalyst 700 and 800 instruments represent the ultimate in performance and speed for sequential multi-element atomic absorption spectrometers.These are clearly instruments designed and produced for the start of the next century. Perkin-Elmer has always been here for you and we intend to be so for the future.You can have confidence that Perkin-Elmer can provide you with whole solutions to your analytical requirements, now and in the future.