4 SO2 Analyzer – Model 6400EThe Model 6400E UV Fluorescence SO2 Analyzer is a microprocessor controlled analyzer that determines the concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2)The sample gas, drawn through the sample chamber, is exposed to ultraviolet light causing any SO2 present to fluoresce.The instrument measures the amount of fluorescence to determine the amount of SO2 present in the sample gas.The 6400E’s exceptional stability is achieved with1- the use of an optical shutter to compensate for sensor drift2- reference detector to correct for changes in UV lamp intensity.3- an advanced optical design combined with a special scrubber, called a "kicker" that removes hydrocarbons (which fluoresces similarly to SO2) prevents inaccuracies due to interferences.PMT:Photo-Multiplier Tube IZS: Internal Zero /Span GLOSSARY p53
6 SO2 Analyzer – Model 6400E UV Fluorescence Ultraviolet fluorescence is a mechanism in which UV radiation excites chemicals in an object and causes them to release visible light. Optical shutterShutters are used to control the level of light exposure to anoptical lens (or lens system)Shutters are manually or motor controlled iris that may be openedor closed to control the level of light that passes through the aperture.Shutters provide an accurate, stable level of light transmission that may be easily adjusted.kickerA special scrubber that uses a mechanism to remove any PNA chemicals present in the sample gas before it the reach the sample chamber.PNA : poly-nuclear aromatics like xylene and naphthalene
7 SO2 Analyzer – Model 6400E UV SOURCE LAMP The source of excitation UV light for the 6400E is a low pressure zinc-vapor lamp. An AC voltage heats up and vaporizes zinc creating a light-producing plasma arc. Zinc-vapor lamps are preferred over the more common mercury- vapor lamps for this application because they produce very strong emission levels at the wavelength required to convert SO2 to SO2*, nmTHE REFERENCE DETECTORA vacuum diode, UV detector that converts UV light to a DC current is used to measure the intensity of the excitation UV source lamp. It is located directly across from the source lamp at the back of a narrow tube-shaped light trap, which places it directly in the path of the excitation UV lightPhoto Multiplier Tube or PMTThe amount of fluoresced UV produced in the sample chamber is much less than the intensity of excitation UV source lamp. Therefore a much more sensitive device is needed to detect this light with enough resolution to be meaningful. Therefore the 6400E uses a PMT for this purpose.
8 SO2 Analyzer – Model 6400E USEPA EQSA-0495-100 CE Ranges: 0-5 ppb to 0-20,000 ppb, user selectable. Dual and auto rangingUnits: ppb, ppm, mg/m3Zero Noise: 0.2 ppb (RMS)Span Noise: ≤ 0.5% of reading, above 50 ppbZero Drift: < 0.2 ppb/24 hours , <1 ppb / 7 daysSpan Drift: < 0.5% /24 hours, <1 % / 7 daysLower Detectable Limit (LDL): 0.4 ppbSample Flow Rate: 650 cc/min ±10%Linearity: 1% of full scalePrecision : ≤ 0.5% of reading above 50 ppbLag Time 20 secondsRise/Fall Time 95% in <100 secOperating Temperature /Humidity Range: ˚C / 0-95% RH
12 SO2 Analyzer – Model 6400ESome of the features of the UV Fluorescence Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer are:Standard two year warrantyMicroprocessor controlled for versatilityMulti-tasking software to allow viewing test variables while operatingContinuous self checking with alarmsDual bi-directional RS-232 ports for remote operation (optional RS-485 or Ethernet)Digital status outputs indicate instrument operating conditionAdaptive signal filtering to optimize response timeTemperature & Pressure compensationInternal Zero & Span check (optional)Internal data logging with 1 min to 365 day multiple averagesCritical flow orifices to provide flow stability
13 SO2 Analyzer – Model 6400ESPAN GAS SOURCE Span gas is created when zero air passes over a permeation tube containing liquid SO2 under high pressure, which slowly permeates through a PTFE membrane (Teflon) into the surrounding air. The speed at which the SO2 permeates the membrane is called the effusion rate(the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass of its particles) The concentration of the span gas is determined by three factors: Size of membrane: The larger the area the more permeation occurs. Temperature of the SO2: Increasing the temperature of the increases the pressure inside the tube and therefore increases the effusion rate. Flow rate of the zero air: If the previous two variables are constant, the permeation rate of air into the zero air stream will be constant. Therefore, a lower flow rate of zero air produces higher concentrations of SO2. The M100E usually has a constant flow rate and a constant permeation rate; hence, variations in concentration can be achieved by changing the IZS temperature.
14 SO2 Analyzer – Model 6400ECALIBRATION GASES 1. ZERO AIR A gas that is similar in chemical composition to the earth’s atmosphere but without the gas being measured by the analyzer, in this case SO2. If your analyzer is equipped with an IZS or external zero air scrubber option, it is capable of creating zero air. For analyzers without an IZS or external zero air scrubber option, a zero air generator such as the Teledyne API Model 701 can be used. 2.SPAN GAS A gas specifically mixed to match the chemical composition of the type of gas being measured at near full scale of the desired measurement range. In this case, SO2 measurements made with the Teledyne API M100E UV Fluorescence SO2 Analyzer, it is recommended that you use a span gas with a SO2 concentration equal to 80% of the measurement range for your application.
15 SO2 Analyzer – Model 6400E3. SECOND LANGUAGE SWITCHAPI’s instruments can be equipped with a switch that activates an alternate set of display message in a language other than the instrument’s default language. To activate this feature, the instrument must have a specially programmed Disk-on-Module (DOM) containing the second language.4.SECOND GAS SENSORSIn addition to measuring SO2 the unit can be equipped with an optional sensor to measure a second gas, either oxygen or carbon dioxide.OXYGEN SENSOR (OPTION 65A)This option is a sensor that paramagnetically measures the concentration of oxygen in the sample gas.CARBON DIOXIDE SENSOR (OPTION 67A) (NDIR) sensorThe optional CO2 sensor allows the 6400E to measure both SO2 and CO2 simultaneously. This option includes a CO2 sensor probe, a Logic PCA that conditions the probe output and issues a 0-5 VDC signal to the analyzer’sCPU that computes the CO2 concentration
16 SO2 Analyzer – Model 6400E PARAMAGNETIC MEASUREMENT OF O2 The oxygen sensor used in the 6400E utilizes the fact that oxygen is attracted into strong magnetic field whilemost other gases are not, to obtain fast, accurate oxygen measurements.The sensor’s core is made up of two nitrogen filled glass spheres, which are mounted on a rotating suspensionwithin a magnetic field . A mirror is mounted centrally on the suspension and light is shone onto the mirror thatreflects the light onto a pair of photocells. The signal generated by the photocells is passed to a feedback loop,which outputs a current to a wire winding (in effect, a small DC electric motor mounted on the suspended mirror)Oxygen from the sample stream is attracted into the magnetic field displacing the nitrogen filled spheres andcausing the suspended mirror to rotate. Therefore, the amount of light reflected onto the photocells andtherefore the output levels of the photocells. The feedback loop increases the amount of current fed into thewinding in order to move the mirror back into its original position. The more O2 present, the more the mirrormoves and the more current is fed into the winding by the feedback control loop.A sensor measures the amount of current generated by the feedback control loop which is directly proportionalto the concentration of oxygen within the sample gas mixture.
18 SO2 Analyzer – Model 6400E1. DILUTION RATIO OPTIONThe Dilution Ratio Option is a software option that is designed for applications where the Sample gas is diluted before being analyzed. Typically this occurs in Continuous Emission Monitoring (CEM) applications where the quality of gas in a smoke stack is being tested and the sampling method used to remove the gas from the stack dilutes the gas. Once the degree of dilution is known, this feature allows the user to add an appropriate scaling factor to the analyzer’s CO concentration calculation so that the Measurement Range and concentration values displayed on the instrument’s Front Panel Display and reported via the Analog and Serial Outputs reflect the undiluted values.2. MAINTENANCE MODE SWITCHThe instruments can be equipped with a switch that places the instrument in maintenance mode. When present, the switch is accessed by opening the hinged front panel and is located on the rearward facing side of the display/keyboard driver PCA, on the left side, near the particulate filter. When in maintenance mode the instrument ignores all commands received via the COMM ports that alter the operation state of the instrument.
19 SO2 Analyzer – Model 6400ECOMMUNICATION OPTIONS RS-232 MODEM CABLE (OPT 60A, OPT 60B, OPT 60C) RS-232 MULTIDROP (OPTION 62) is used with RS232 and utilizes both DB-9 connectors on the rear panel to enable communications of up to eight analyzers with the host computer over a chain of RS-232 cables. ETHERNET (OPTION 63A) ETHERNET + MULTIDROP (OPT 63C) This option allows the instrument to communicate on both RS-232 and ETHERNET networks simultaneously. It includes the following: RS-232 MULTIDROP (OPT 62) ETHERNET (OPT 63A)
20 SO2 Analyzer – Model 6400E GENERAL OVERVIEW OF HESSEN PROTOCOL The Hessen protocol is a Multidrop protocol, in which several remote instruments are connected via aCommon communications channel to a host computer. The remote instruments are regarded asslaves of the host computer. The remote instruments are unaware that they are connected to aMultidrop bus and never initiate Hessen protocol messages. They only respond to commands from thehost computer and only when they receive a command containing their own unique ID number.The Hessen protocol is designed to accomplish two things: to obtain the status of remote instruments,Including the concentrations of all the gases measured; and to place remote instruments into zero orspan calibration or measure mode. API’s implementation supports both of these principal features.The Hessen protocol is not well defined; therefore while API’s application is completely compatiblewith the protocol itself, it may be different from implementations by other companies.
21 SO2 Analyzer – Model 6400E LEVEL 1 ZERO AND SPAN CALIBRATION A Level 1 zero and span calibration is a simplified, two point analyzer calibration used when analyzer linearity does not need to be checked or verified. Since most analyzers have a reliably linear or near-linear output response with concentration, they can be adequately calibrated with only two concentration standards (two-point concentration). Furthermore, one of the standards may be zero concentration, which is relatively easily obtained and need not be certified. Hence, only one certified concentration standard is needed for the two-point (Level 1) zero and span calibration. Although lacking the advantages of the multipoint calibration, the two- point zero and span calibration--because of its simplicity—can be (and should be) carried out much more frequently. Also, two-point calibrations are easily automated. Frequency checks or updating of the calibration relationship with a two-point zero and span calibration improves the quality of the monitoring data by helping to keep the calibration relationship more closely matched to any changes (drifts) in the analyzer response.(Linearity :The amount of error change throughout an instrument's measurement range. Linearity is also the amount of deviation from an instrument's ideal straight-line performance)
22 SO2 Analyzer – Model 6400ELEVEL 2 ZERO AND SPAN CHECK A Level 2 zero and span check is an "unofficial" check of an analyzer's response. Artificial stimulation of the analyzer's detector, electronic or other types of checks of a portion of the analyzer, etc. Level 2 zero and span checks are not to be used as a basis for analyzer zero or span adjustments, calibration updates, or adjustment of ambient data. They are intended as quick, convenient checks to be used between zero and span calibrations to check for possible analyzer malfunction or calibration drift. Whenever a Level 2 zero or span check indicates a possible calibration problem, a Level 1 zero and span (or multipoint) calibration should be carried out before any corrective action is taken. Subsequent Level 2 check responses should then be compared to the most recent reference response to determine if a change in response has occurred. For automatic Level 2 zero and span checks, the first scheduled check following the calibration should be used for the reference response. It should be kept in mind that any Level 2 check that involves only part of the analyzer's system cannot provide information about the portions of the system not checked and therefore cannot be used as a verification of the overall analyzer calibration.
23 SO2 Analyzer – Model 6400E ELECTRO-STATIC DISCHARGE Modern electronic devices such as the types used in the various electronic assemblies of your analyzer, are very small, require very little power and operate very quickly. Unfortunately, the same characteristics that allow them to do these things also make them very susceptible to damage from the discharge of static electricity. Damage to components occurs when these static charges come into contact with an electronic device.Temporary anti-ESD work areaAlways wear an Anti-ESD wrist strap when working on the electronic assemblies of your analyzer.Simply touching a grounded piece of metal is insufficient. While this may temporarily bleed off staticAlways store sensitive components and assemblies in anti-ESD storage bags or binsMAINTENANCE PROCEDURES please refer to P 214 of the manual
24 TELEYNE Team Thank you All Company ConfidentialTELEYNE Team Thank you AllCompany Headquarters: City of Industry, California USAFacility: 60,000 sq. ft. / ISO-9001:2008Founded: 1945Core Capabilities: Manufacturer of high quality measurement and control instrumentation.Website:
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