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Hormone Replacement Therapy for Transgenders Do’s and Don'ts

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Presentation on theme: "Hormone Replacement Therapy for Transgenders Do’s and Don'ts"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hormone Replacement Therapy for Transgenders Do’s and Don'ts
Steven M. Brown, MD University of Wisconsin School of Medicine

2 A Case Report

3 What is Hormone Replacement Therapy?

4 What is a Hormone? Organic compound, secreted by a gland, in minute quantities, into the bloodstream, that has a regulatory effect on the metabolism of tissue or organs at a site different than the site of secretion Alter the metabolism of cells or the synthesis and secretion of other substances (“tropic hormones”) Bind to receptors (specific proteins) to “turn on” functions in target tissues

5 Endocrinology 101 Glands: Groups of cells which specialize in the secretion of hormones
Some important glands Pituitary Anterior pituitary Growth hormone Thyroid stimulating hormone Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) FSH LH Prolactin

6 Additional glands Thyroid Pancreas Hypothalamus Parathyroid glands
Insulin Hypothalamus Parathyroid glands Adrenal glands Cortisol Testosterone Estrogen Aldosterone

7 The “sex glands” Ovaries Testes Progesterone Estrogen
Regulate reproduction, bone metabolism, regulation of blood cholesterol, breasts, skin Testes Testosterone Regulates reproduction, musculature, bone metabolism, cholesterol levels, red blood cell production

8 Chemical origins of sex hormones
Derived from cholesterol Chemical structures of estrogen, progesterone, testosterone vary slightly Testosterone is a metabolite of progesterone Estrogen is a metabolite of testosterone Production is governed by negative feedback loops Present in males and females in differing concentrations

9 Chemical origins of sex hormones

10 Changes which occur in puberty
Pre-wired biological clock, probably in the hypothalamus, coincides with practical reproductive considerations Hypothalamus releases Leutinising Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH). LHRH passes down nerve endings, stimulates pituitary gland In girls, around age 10 to 13, FSH and LH are produced—starts the cyclic activity of the ovaries in the production of estrogen In boys, ages of 10 and 14 years, FSH and LH “switch on” testicular function in males (FSH triggers sperm production), LH triggers testosterone production

11 Why Use Hormone Replacement?
Change physical appearance to maximize consistency between physical identity and internal gender identity Assist in “passing” Create better skin and hair patterns for subsequent cosmetic surgery such as facial feminization Assist FTM transgenders with “beard growth” For emotional well-being

12 What are some of the obstacles to HRT?
Patient issues Ambivalence, “coming out” issues, fears of violence, fears of rejection, discrimination, social stigmatization Not transsexual or not intensely transsexual Financial considerations “social and economic marginalization” Access to health care Mistrust of medical establishment Ability to have sustained follow-up and monitoring Medical/behavioral contraindications Underlying disease states Unfavorable family history Unfavorable lifestyle (tobacco, alcohol)

13 What are some of the obstacles to HRT?
Health care provider issues Lack of education Lack of clinical experience Relative paucity of studies Unanswered questions Personal discomfort Serious complications Fear of litigation Off-label administration of medications

14 Who Prescribes Hormone Replacement?
Primary care physician Internist Family Practitioner “Gender dysphoria” clinic Endocrinologist Gynecologist Urologist SRS Surgeon Psychiatrists

15 Who SHOULDN’T Prescribe Hormones
Yourself Family Friends Internet “buddies” “Urgent care” physicians “On-line” doctors “On-line” pharmacies

16 Where Transgenders Get Hormones
“Black Market Friends Mexico Internet Local pharmacy

NEVER use hormonal medication prescribed for another person DON’T self-medicate Use caution in purchasing hormones from “Black market sources”, the Internet, foreign countries, mail order houses and vendors who can “get it or you” Medication may be impure May be contaminated Temptation to bypass appropriate monitoring

18 SOME MORE WARNINGS Don’t double dose
Don’t alter regimen without supervision

19 An HRT “Do” A clinician should collaborate with a mental health specialist who has extensive experience with the diagnosis of such patients to avoid mistreatment with hormones or sex-reversing surgical procedures

20 Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association:
Standards of Care: Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association: Requirements for HRT in adults Age 18 or older Demonstrable knowledge of what hormones can and cannot do Knowledge of social benefits and risks Documented real-life test for at least 3 months before HRT or Period of psychotherapy of duration specified by a mental health professional (usually 3 months) A letter from the mental health professional to the prescribing physician

21 Some important principles
There is a lot of misinformation, especially on the Internet Hormone therapy remains somewhat “hit and miss” “Individual results will vary”, especially for MTF Extremely important to let any treating physician and pharmacist know of all your medications to avoid “drug-drug” interactions and to reduce potential complications Need to keep spouse/significant others informed

22 Reproductive options To give opportunity to obtain children who are genetically “their own” Sperm banking prior to HRT for MTF FTM’s banking of ovarian tissue or oocytes Embryo banking Gender reassignment and assisted reproduction, Human Reproduction 16: (2001)

23 “Real-Life Test” Pros and Cons
HRT can cause permanent changes including sterility and gynecomastia. RLT may confirm that transitioning is the right choice Cons HRT makes it easier to pass and easier to attempt RLT Most people who would consider hormones are pretty sure of what they want by that time HRT is “diagnostic” itself—true transsexuals will feel calmer and relieved upon starting HRT; if not truly transsexual, changes will cause worsening anxiety

24 Purposes of Feminizing Hormones
Induce the development of female secondary sexual characteristics Anti-androgen treatment to reduce the effect of endogenous male sex hormones

25 An important principle— have realistic expectations

26 Feminizing Hormones DO NOT
Cause the voice to increase in pitch. Dramatically reduce facial hair growth in most people. There are some exceptions with people who have the proper genetic predisposition and/or are less than a decade past puberty. Change the shape or size of bone structure. However, they may decrease the bone density slightly.

27 Some important DO’s DO review risks and benefits before starting any hormones DO be sure that this is what you really, really want…permanent changes can occur within weeks DO be patient DO eat healthy and exercise DO reduce alcohol intake (reduce stress on liver)

28 Some important DO’s DO have regular medical checkups (every 2-3 months) DO watch your blood pressure DO take a good multi-vitamin/mineral supplement to help be sure the body has everything it needs for new development DO give the body time to adjust Use the lowest hormone dosage that affords the desired changes. DO make sure you are not allergic to Provera tablets before you use Depo-Provera sustained release intramuscular injection DO drink fluids, watch potassium intake if taking spironolactone

29 Some important DO’s of Doctoring
DO see a reputable doctor for your care DO get regular check-ups DO be honest and up front with your doctor about all medications DO make a list of questions prior to each visit—don’t be afraid to ask questions EDUCATE your doctor, especially if you disagree DO keep records of all changes—physical and emotional, and SHARE them with your doctors SEE your doctor for any discharge from breasts

30 Some important DON’TS DON’T go out on your own for meds
DON’T alter your medication regimen DON’T BUY hormones on the Internet or through Mexico DON’T BELIEVE everything you read on the Internet, including web pages, bulletin boards, and chat rooms DON’T let your weight get out of control DON’T smoke DON’T taking the maximum planned dosage of all hormones at once DON’T take pre-operative dosages of hormones for more than about 3 years

31 Effects of Feminizing Hormones on Males
Effects vary from patient to patient—familial, genetic tendencies Younger patients generally obtain and more rapid results Noticeable changes within 2-3 months Irreversible effects within 6 months Feminization continues at a decreasing rate for two years or more, often with a “spurt” of breast growth and other changes after orchidectomy

32 Effects of Feminizing Hormones on Males
Breast development can take years, begins after 2-3 months final size about 1 to 2 cup sizes less than close female relatives less satisfactory results in older patients Only one-third more than a “B”-cup 45% don’t advance beyond an “A” growth not always symmetric Larger male thorax “dilutes” effect enhanced by progesterone nipples expand areolae darken

33 Effects of Feminizing Hormones on Males
Loss of ability to ejaculate/maintain erection (variable) Fertility and “male sex drive” drop rapidly—this may become permanent after a few months Increased female-type sex drive/attraction to men

34 Effects of Feminizing Hormones on Males
Decreased testicular size (mostly flaccid) The prostate shrinks but does not disappear and prostate cancer is still possible (although risk is reduced) DO HAVE REGULAR PROSTATE EXAMINATIONS Decreased penis size, scrotal size (25% within first year), sometimes requiring the patient to stretch by hand to maintain adequate donor material for SRS Spontaneous erections suppressed within 3 months (but not totally eliminated)

35 Effects of Feminizing Hormones on Males
Decreased facial/body hair Body hair lightens in texture and color, frequently disappears Cessation of male pattern baldness Limited regrowth of scalp hair which has been lost Improvement in thickness and texture of scalp hair Enhanced action of 2% or 5% minoxidil (Rogaine®) Not much effect on distribution of facial hair Enhanced effect of electrolysis Decreased rate of growth

36 Cutaneous Effects of Feminizing Hormones on Males
Redistribution of body and facial fat Face looks more “feminine”—reduced angularity, fuller cheeks Redistribution of fat from waist to hips and buttocks Skin softer/smoother/thinner, more translucent, less greasy Skin sometimes becomes excessively dry Improvement in spots and acne Redistribution of fat to hips and buttocks Brittle fingernails Increased susceptibility to scratching and bruising Tactile sensation becomes more intense Oil and sweat glands become less active, resulting in dryer skin, scalp, and hair

37 Effects of Feminizing Hormones on Males
Sensory changes Heightened sense of touch Increased sense of smell Emotional changes More labile

38 Effects of HRT on Metabolism in MTF’s
Metabolism decreases Given a caloric intake and exercise regimen consistent with pre-hormonal treatment Weight gain Decreased energy, Increased need for sleep Cold intolerance

39 Other effects of hormones
Reduced risk of Alzheimer’s Improved memory

40 Effects of Feminizing Hormones on Males
Loss of muscle mass Loss of strength Estrogen prevents bone loss after testosterone deprivation Long-term follow-up of bone mineral density and bone metabolism in transsexuals treated with cross-sex hormones, Clinical Endocrinology, 48:

41 Changes in Sexual Orientation
“Of 20 transsexuals of various types that were interviewed, 6 heterosexual male-to-female transsexual respondents reported that their sexual orientation had changed since transitioning from male to female…three of the respondents claimed that the use of female hormones played a role in changing their sexual orientation.” Daskalos CT. Changes in the sexual orientation of six heterosexual male-to-female transsexuals. Arch Sex Behav. 1998;27:

42 Risks of Feminizing Hormones — Some General Principles
Complete risks in transsexuals is not known Most studies are performed in biological women Limited research regarding risks Safety data and Food and Drug Administration approval do not acknowledge the use of hormones in transsexuals All administration is thus “off-label” Mortality not necessarily increased

43 Risks of Feminizing Hormones
Blood clots— 12% over age 40 Usually start in the veins of the legs Can break off and block blood supply to the lungs—a FATAL complication (pulmonary embolism) 20-fold increased risk in MTF’s Risk increased with oral vs. transdermal estrogens Central retinal vein occlusion has been reported Mortality and morbidity in transsexual subjects treated with cross-sex hormones, Clinical Endocrinology, 47: (1997)

44 Risk factors for Venous Thromboembolism
Surgery Trauma (major or lower extremity) Immobility, paresis Malignancy Cancer therapy (hormonal, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy) Previous venous thromboembolism Increasing age Pregnancy and postpartum period Estrogen therapies Selective estrogen receptor modulators Acute medical illness Heart or respiratory failure Inflammatory bowel disease Nephrotic syndrome Myeloproliferative disorders Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria Obesity Central venous catheterization Inherited or acquired thrombophilia Varicose veins Smoking The risk factors referred to the last couple slides are listed here in no particular order. These risk factors are generally cumulative (from Geerts, reference number 11: Rosendaal FR. Venous thrombosis: a multicausal disease. Lancet 1999;353: ) For example, patients with fractures of the hip are at particularly high risk for VTE because of their usual advanced age, the presence of a proximal lower extremity injury as well as its operative repair, and the frequent marked reduction in mobility for weeks after surgery. Risk Factors are Cumulative Geerts et al. CHEST 2004:338S-400S.

45 Reducing the Risk of Blood Clots
Smoking cessation Pharmacologic support Relaxation therapy Behavioral therapy Discontinue HRT for 3-6 weeks prior to any major surgery, including SRS Review HRT with surgeon and anesthesiologist prior to minor surgery Discontinue HRT in injuries which result in immobilization

46 Risks of Feminizing Hormones
Fluid retention Prolactin 14%, in one study developed elevations Pituitary enlargement can sometimes require surgery Hypertension May vary with hormone regimen Mortality and morbidity in transsexual subjects treated with cross-sex hormones, Clinical Endocrinology, 47: (1997)

47 The Cardiac Risks of Feminizing Hormones
Most studies have and are being done in biologic women Much evidence suggests that estrogen lowers cholesterol levels, and raises HDL (good cholesterol) Increases triglycerides, blood pressure, subcutaneous and visceral fat Decreased LDL particle size (bad) Decreased insulin sensitivity (bad)

48 Estrogens and the Heart
Current studies Women’s Health Initiative 27,500 enrollees without CAD to test estrogen or estrogen plus progestin post-hysterectomy Women’s Angiographic Vitamin and Estrogen Women’s Estrogen/Progestin and Lipid Lowering Hormone Atherosclerosis Regression Trial (WELL-HART)

49 Hormones and the Heart JAMA: July 17, 2002
“Risks and Benefits of Estrogen Plus Progestin in Healthy Postmenopausal Women” 16,608, ages studied Received placebo or Premarin® plus Provera® Study stopped after 5.2 years because of significantly increased risk of cancer in treatment group Reduced risk of colorectal cancer and hip fractures Increased risk of coronary artery disease, pulmonary embolism, stroke

50 Hormones and the Heart What is the risk-benefit ratio in post-menopausal women? Decreased hot flashes How does the risk-benefit ratio differ in transgenders? Physical feminization Reduced emotional stress

51 Reducing the Odds of Cardiac Complications
If there’s a history or strong family history of heart attack, coronary artery disease, or stroke Close supervision by a cardiologist, stress test Blood pressure, lipid control, blood thinners Estradiol (Estrace® 1 or 2 mg), a naturally occurring estrogen, is preferred to Premarin® Usual dose is 4 mg daily pre-op, 2 mg daily post-op Natural progesterone (Prometrium®) does not have the adverse effects of medroxyprogesterone (Provera®) on blood cholesterol or blood pressure levels Consider daily administration of aspirin 81 mg daily Reduce risk factors No smoking Watch weight Watch blood sugar

52 Risks of Feminizing Hormones
Gallstone disease Liver disease (low risk) Weight gain Mood swings

53 Risks of Feminizing Hormones
Cancer risk Fibroadenoma—the most common breast tumor Influenced by estrogen Estrogen receptors present in % of patients with fibroadenoma Breast cancer Prostate cancer Has been reported

54 Contraindications to HRT in FTM Patients
Absolute History of thromboembolism or thrombotic tendency History of macroprolactinoma History of breast cancer Active substance abuse Relative Coronary artery disease Cerebrovascular disease Hepatic dysfunction or tumor Strong family history of breast cancer Cholelithiasis Poorly controlled hypertriglyceridemia Poorly controlled diabetes mellitus Refractory migraine headaches Heavy tobacco use Uncontrolled hypertension Endocrine Therapy of Transsexualism and Potential Complications of Long-Term Treatment, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 27: (1998)

55 “DO” Get Appropriate Monitoring
Follow-up exams every 2 – 3 month Breast exam Measurements Looking for galactorrhea Weight Blood pressure Testicular size Examination of extremities for phlebitis, edema Visual fields

56 Appropriate laboratory monitoring
Liver function tests Lipid profile Renal (kidney) function Blood pressure Fasting glucose Thyroid function Blood clotting times (every 6 – 12 months) Testosterone levels (<50 ng/dl) in MTF’s Prolactin (rule out prolactinoma) Breast self-examination Prostate examination Pregnancy testing (FTM’s)

57 Monitoring changes Estrogen levels
Testosterone levels (especially in pre-ops) or if considering antiandrogens in a post-op—can usually be followed o clinical grounds

58 MTF Monitoring—Johns Hopkins

59 Other Tests Which Can Be Followed
Calcium and phosphorus (skeletal health) Bone densitometry every two or three years

60 Testosterone levels 300-1000 ng/dl genetic males
5-85 ng/dl genetic females

61 Estrogen levels Levels may be misleading secondary to insensitivity of assays Dosing is more commonly made on “clinical grounds”

62 Administration of Hormones
Orally (estrogens, progesterones, androgens) Advantage: convenience Disadvantage: increased stress on the liver

63 Administration of Hormones
Sublingual Dissolve under the tongue Better absorption Avoid passing through the liver which may stimulate clotting problems Injections (estrogens, progesterones, androgens) Advantages: Preferred in setting of liver disease Preferred mode of delivering androgens Disadvantages: unsteady hormone levels (except for sustained-release preparations in oil or microscopic beads) pain infection risk from hypodermic needle usage

64 Administration of hormones
Skin patches Advantage: Convenience Disadvantage: skin irritation, allergy to adhesive Cream (estrogens): Advantage moister and healthier skin. low transfer rate into the body, requires frequent spread on very large skin surfaces.

65 Dosing of HRT in Male to Females
No generalized agreement General principles DON’T mix drugs within categories Need drugs from these two categories Anti-androgens (discontinued post-operatively) Estrogens

66 Taking Just One Class of Medications
Anti-androgens alone Serious bone density loss Estrogens alone Does not lower testosterone levels

67 Common anti-androgens
Cyproterone acetate (Androcur®, Cyprostat®) (antigonadotropic) Not available in United States Androgen receptor antagonist mg/daily Oral or injectable Risk of liver damage, thromboembolic disease Altered carbohydrate metabolism Medroxyprogesterone Nilutamide (androgen receptor blocker) Finesteride Propecia (testosterone antagonist—decreases DHT) 5 mg daily Reduces male pattern baldness

68 Androgen receptor antagonists
Flutamide (Eulexin) Androgen receptor antagonist Hepatotoxic Reduced blood counts, including platelets Hypertension Fluid retention Depression, anxiety, nervousness, lassitude, insomnia, GI disturbances 250 mg one to three times daily

69 Antiandrogens Spironolactone Weak androgen receptor antagonist
Diuretic Can cause elevated potassium levels Antihypertensive 100 to 400 mg daily

70 GnRH Agonists Act on pituitary Overstimulating pituitary
Then desensitizing it to GnRH from hypothalamus Used in adolescents to delay puberty or when hormones are withdrawn prior to surgery to reduce reversion to male Limited experience Drugs: Nafarelin acetate nasal spray Goserelin acetate injection Lupron Leunrorelin acetate

71 A word about herbals Not benign—potential for liver injury
Still a medication and self-medicating Unregulated by FDA

72 Common estrogens Estradiol valerate (Estrace®)
Equivalent to natural 17 b-estradiol May be safer than ethinylestradiol Reduced risk of breast cancer and thrombosis although how much risk reduction in high doses of transsexuals is not known 4-6 mg pre-op in divided doses 1-2 mg daily post-op Best combined with an antiandrogen If hot flushes, night sweats appear, switch to ethinylestradiol may be helpful

73 Common estrogens Ethinylestradiol (Estinyl®)
Slowly metabolized by the liver, resulting in greater potency and longer half life Regarded by many as pre-op drug of choice More intense feminizing effects 50 mg twice daily, gradually reduced to 50 mg

74 Common estrogens Conjugated natural estrogens (Premarin®)
From urine of pregnant mares Ethical issues More expensive 5 – 7.5 mg daily pre-op (divided doses) 1 – 2.5 mg daily post-op

75 Common estrogens Estraderm® patches µg/day tramdermally

76 Common progestogens Anti-androgenic Not feminizing alone
Enhances feminization from estrogen May help maintain libido May reduce cancer risk associated with estrogens

77 Medroxyprogesterone acetate Provera®
Good safety record May be slightly virilizing—may be metabolized into testosterone If virilization occurs, switch to dydrogesterone Typical dose 5 mg twice daily pre-op for 10 days of the month May enhance breast development 2.5 – 5 mg daily post-op

78 Natural Progesterone Micronized progesterone Progesterone USP
Prometrium Molecular structure closer to the progesterone produced in a natal female's body Provera has been linked to depression in trans women Less androgenic More costly

79 Common HRT in the United States
Estrogen preparations Conjugated estrogens (Premarin) mg/day Estradiol (Estrace) 2-6 mg/day Ethinyl estradiol mg/day Estradiol transdermal patches mg twice weekly Estradiol valerate mg every 2 wk Antiandrogens Spironolactone mg/day

80 Failure to Respond In no changes are seen (including “tender nipples”) within 2-3 months or Feminization is very limited over a longer period of time Serum testosterone, DHEAS levels to rule out overproduction of androgens Referral to an endocrinologist

81 FTM Hormone Replacement
Females respond quite well to hormone replacement as adolescents and as adults Experience all the changes that genetic males experience during puberty Most of these changes are irreversible

82 Why is FTM easier than MTF?
In FTM, addition of androgens excites androgen receptors which are there but dormant Puberty occurs again, but differentiating as a male this time In MTF, bodies are already differentiated by the natural presence of androgen Males are thus “immune” to further pubertal changes

83 Effects of Masculinizing Hormones on Females
Acne Male pattern baldness Increased muscle mass and development Growth of facial and body hair Thickening of vocal cords and deepening of voice (not always reversible), not always down to typical male pitch

84 Effects of Masculinizing Hormones on Females
Enlarged clitoris (3-8 cm) with increased libido—can become overly, painfully sensitive, peaks after 2-3 years Atrophy of uterus and ovaries Growth spurt, closure of growth plates before puberty Increased bone density Reduced risk of blood clots Testosterone increases bone mineral density in female-to-male transsexuals: a case series of 15 subjects, Clinical Endocrinology, 61: Venous Thrombosis and Changes of Hemostatic Variables during Cross-Sex Hormone Treatment in Transsexual People, J. Clin. Endocrin. Metab. 88: (2003)


86 Effects of Masculinizing Hormones on Females
Fertility decreases--menstrual cycle becomes irregular then stops, usually within 5 months Outer skin layer becomes rougher in feeling and appearance Prominence of veins Fat is redistributed. The face becomes more typically “male” in shape. Fat tends to move away from the hips and toward the waist Body odors (skin and urine) change. They become less "sweet" or "musky" and become more "tangy" or "metallic." Emotions change. Aggressive and dominant feelings may increase

87 Male hormones DO NOT Significantly decrease the size of the breasts.
However, they may soften somewhat Change the shape or size of bone structure Grow a penis Prevent pregnancy Work overnight

88 Risks of Masculinizing Hormones
Ovarian cancer—long-term exposure to endogenous and exogenous androgens are associated with ovarian epithelial cancer Steroids increase epidermal growth factors and transforming growth factor (TGF-a) which promote cancer growth Polycystic ovaries Endometrial hyperplasia—risk of endometrial cancer Breast cancer—breast cells may remain even after mastectomy Ovarian Cancer in Female-to-Male Transsexuals: Report of Two Cases, Gynecologic Oncology 76: (2000)

89 Risks of Masculinizing Hormones
Reduced HDL cholesterol (bad) Reduced LDL particle size (bad) Increases triglycerides Polycythemia (elevated red blood cell levels) Increased sweating Increased metabolism “Hot flashes”

90 Risks of Masculinizing Hormones
Water and sodium retention Decreased carbohydrate tolerance Obesity and insulin-resistance Sleep apnea Increased aggressive behavior, hypersexuality (rare) Excessive testosterone can convert to estrogen, increase risk of breast cancer

91 Testosterone and the Liver
Testosterone-induced hepatotoxicity Increased liver enzyme levels are a frequent occurrence occurs in about 15% Hepatic adenomas Hepatocellular carcinomas Peliosis hepatitis—blood-filled cavities in the liver

92 Contraindications of HRT in FTM’s
Absolute Pregnancy Active substance abuse Relative History of breast or uterine cancer Polycythemia Hepatic dysfunction or tumor Coronary artery disease Hyperlipidemia History of violent behavior Severe obstructive sleep apnea Androgen sensitive epilepsy Migraines Bleeding disorders (for injected testosterone) Hormone replacement therapy (trans)

93 Common Androgen Replacement
Injectable testosterone Testosterone enanthate mg IM every 2-3 wk Testosterone cypionate mg IM every 2-3 wk Can be self-administered Transdermal testosterone Testosterone transdermal patches† mg/day Testosterone gel 1% (AndroGel)† g/day Risk of inadvertent exposure to others who come into contact with skin EXCESSIVE TESTOSTERONE MAY LEAD TO STROKE AND HEART ATTACK Endocrine Therapy of Transsexualism and Potential Complications of Long-Term Treatment, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 27: (1998)

94 Other androgen replacement
Testosterone pellets (Testopel) 6 -12 pellets under the skin every three months Local anesthetic More constant blood levels Oral Andriol—not available in the US Has to pass through liver Sublingual/buccal lozenge Striant—absorbed through oral mucosa, avoiding liver Gum irritation Taste changes Headaches

95 Drug Interactions of Testosterone
Drugs which decrease levels of testosterone levels: Phenobarbital and Dilantin (seizure medicines) Rifampin Alcohol! Drugs which increase levels of testosterone: Serzone, Prozac, Paxil (antidepressants) Sporanox, Diflucan (antifungals) Tagamet Biaxin, Zithromax (antibiotics) Protease Inhibitors (HIV treatment) Testosterone can also alter the effects of other drugs: Increase the blood thinning effect of Coumadin Decreases the effectiveness of Inderal (propranolol) a blood-pressure medicine Increases the effect of some oral medicines for diabetes and can cause dangerously low blood sugar levels

96 Progesterone Treatment in FTM’s
Short-course progesterone therapy to Induce menstrual period in first 2 years to shed build-up of endometrial lining (if a hysterectomy has not been performed) Reduces spot bleeding Decreases risk of uterine cancer

97 FTM Monitoring—Johns Hopkins

98 Some FTM Do’s Prior to hormone therapy, consider hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectmy Eliminates risk of ovarian cancer Saves awkward situation of doing a hysterectomy on a masculinized patient Stress management Giving blood Be patient PAP smears, pelvic examination if you still have a uterus Check bone densitometry Endometrial ultrasounds every two years Take a calcium supplement

99 Some FTM Don’ts Don’t buy too many shoes—your feet will grow
More is not better

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