Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Ch. 40 Warm-Up What type of behavior in animals might be triggered by cold temperatures? What type of behaviors might be triggered in hot temperatures?

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Ch. 40 Warm-Up What type of behavior in animals might be triggered by cold temperatures? What type of behaviors might be triggered in hot temperatures?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 40 Warm-Up What type of behavior in animals might be triggered by cold temperatures? What type of behaviors might be triggered in hot temperatures? List 2 examples of negative feedback. List 2 examples of positive feedback. What is the main type of chemical messenger in the endocrine system? The nervous system?

2 Warm-Up Compare and contrast the nervous system with the endocrine system. (Focus on the effects on the body) Define neurosecretory cell. What is its function? Give an example of positive and negative feedback in the endocrine system. How do they function?

3 Ch. 45 Warm-Up Compare peptide hormones to steroids.
Explain how insulin and glucagon work to regulate blood sugar levels. Which glands and hormones respond when your body is under stress?

4 Chapter 45 Hormones and the Endocrine System
A hormone called ecdysteroid regulates the timing of metamorphosis in this anise swallowtail butterfly.

5 You must know: Two ways hormones affect target organs.
The secretion, target, action, and regulation of at least 3 hormones. An illustration of both positive and negative feedback in the regulation of homeostasis by hormones.

6 Types of Intercellular Signaling

7 Endocrine System = Hormone-secreting cells + Tissues
Endocrine glands: ductless, secrete hormones directly into body fluids Hormones: chemical signals that cause a response in target cells (receptor proteins for specific hormones) Affects 1 tissue, a few, or most tissues in body Or affect other endocrine glands (tropic hormones) Regulation by Positive & Negative Feedback

8 Pheromones Hormones Local Regulators
Chemical signal from 1 individual to another individual Chemical signal from endocrine gland through blood to target cell Chemical signal from one cell to an adjacent cell Eg. ant trail; sex phermones Eg. peptide, steroid hormones Eg. cytokines, growth factors, nitric oxide (NO)


10 Types of Hormones Peptide Steroid Water-soluble
Bind to receptors on plasma membrane & triggers signal transduction pathway Affects protein activity already present in cell Rapid response Short-lived Eg. oxytocin, insulin, epinephrine Lipid-soluble Enters cell & binds to intracellular receptors Causes change in gene expression (protein synthesis) Slower response Longer life Eg. androgens (testosterone), estrogen, progesterone, cortisol


12 Epinephrine: one hormone  many effects
Liver cells break down glycogen and release glucose Blood vessels to skeletal muscles dilate Blood vessels to intestines constrict

13 Master Glands Hypothalamus Pituitary Gland

14 Master Glands Hypothalamus Pituitary Gland
Receives info from nerves and brain Initiates endocrine signals Hypothalamus Posterior pituitary gland: Oxytocin: contract uterine muscles, eject milk in nursing Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH): promote H2O retention by kidneys Pituitary Gland Anterior pituitary gland: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): development of ovarian follicles (eggs); promote sperm production Luteinizing hormone (LH): trigger ovulation; stimulate testosterone production in testes

15 Hypothalamus regulation of Posterior Pituitary gland

16 Hypothalamus regulation of Anterior Pituitary gland



19 Negative feedback systems:
Thyroid hormones Blood Ca2+ levels Blood glucose levels Positive feedback system: Oxytocin (birthing process; release of milk/suckling)


21 Insulin & Glucagon: Control blood glucose levels

22 Control of Blood Glucose
High blood glucose Liver breaks down glycogen and releases glucose into blood Insulin released from pancreas Body cells take up glucose Liver stores glucose as glycogen Glucagon released from pancreas Blood glucose drops

23 Diabetes Mellitus Type I diabetes (10%):deficiency of insulin
Insulin-dependent Autoimmune disorder  beta cells of pancreas destroyed Type II diabetes (90%): failure of target cells to respond to insulin Non-insulin dependent Insulin produced  cells don’t respond (defect in insulin receptor or response pathway) Risk factors: obesity, lack of exercise

24 Thyroid Gland Graves’ Disease: Autoimmune disorder
Hypothalamus TRH Anterior pituitary TSH Thyroid T3 T4 Graves’ Disease: Autoimmune disorder Antibodies bind to TSH receptor Hyperthyroidism High temp, sweating, weight loss, high BP

25 Stress and the Adrenal Gland

26 Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid (AAS) Use
Legally prescribed to treat hormone deficiency, loss of muscle mass (cancer, AIDS) Used to enhance performance and improve physical appearance

27 Effects of AAS Abuse Source:
aggression extreme mood swings liver damage jaundice fluid retention high blood pressure increases in LDL (“bad” cholesterol) decreases in HDL (“good” cholesterol) renal failure severe acne For men—shrinking of the testicles, reduced sperm count, infertility, baldness, development of breasts, increased risk for prostate cancer For women—growth of facial hair, male-pattern baldness, changes in or cessation of the menstrual cycle, enlargement of the clitoris, deepened voice For adolescents—stunted growth due to premature skeletal maturation and accelerated puberty changes; risk of not reaching expected height if AAS is taken before the typical adolescent growth spurt In addition, people who inject AAS run the added risk of contracting or transmitting HIV/AIDS or hepatitis.

Download ppt "Ch. 40 Warm-Up What type of behavior in animals might be triggered by cold temperatures? What type of behaviors might be triggered in hot temperatures?"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google