Introduction to Endocrine System Dr. Hanan Said Ali.
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Introduction to Endocrine System Dr. Hanan Said Ali
objectives Describe the anatomy of endocrinal system. Identify the Functions of Hormones. Discus the diagnostic studies of the endocrine system. Enumerate Signs and Symptoms of endocrinal disorders
Endocrinological Nursing The endocrine system is composed of glands and glandular tissues that synthesize, store and secret chemical messengers (hormones) that travel through the blood to specific target cells throughout the body. The endocrine system consists of the hypothalamus, anterior and posterior pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla, pancreas, gonads.
Endocrinological Nursing Cont. Functions of Hormones Maintenance of a normal internal environment. Energy production. Storage and utilization. Growth and development. Reproductive and sexual functions.
Diagnostic studies of the Endocrine system Laboratory tests aid and confirm the diagnosis: Pituitary Studies Serum Studied: include test of growth hormone, somatomelin(insulin- like growth factor(1);GH release after exercise; insulin- induced hypoglythemea, prolactin; FSH ;water deprivation tests. Growth hormone................. More 5 ng/mL Radiological Studies: X- ray, CT scan MRI.
Diagnostic studies of the Endocrine system Thyroid Studied: Serum Studies: Include test for T4, T3, Thyroxine, freeT4 FreeT3, radioactive iodine uptake TSH and calcitonin. T4.............. 0.5–5.0 U/mL T3............. 75–195 ng/100 mL Thyroxine.......... 4–12 g/100 mL
Radiological Studies: Thyroid scan. A radioactive material is injected or radioactive iodine is taken orally. The material is attracted by the thyroid gland. After a specified time, the thyroid gland is scanned with a scintillation camera. The scan will show “hot spots,” which are nodules that are not malignant, or “cold spots” (areas that do not take up the radioactivity),which indicate malignancy.
Diagnostic studies of the Endocrine system Ultrasound Ultrasound may be done of the thyroid or parathyroid glands to determine if they are enlarged or to find masses. Biopsy Biopsy is done to obtain tissue to examine for possible cancerous cells. The thyroid gland can be biopsied either by needle aspiration under local anaesthesia or using a surgical incision.
Diagnostic studies of the Endocrine system Parathyroid Studies: Serum Studies: Parathyroid hormones (PTH), total serum calcium phosphorous, 125- Dihydroxy vitamin D3 test. Calcium.............. 8.5–10.5 mg/100 mL Phosphorus............ 2.4–4.7 mg/dL Radiological Studies: X- ray, CT scan
Diagnostic studies of the Endocrine system Adrenal Studies: Serum Studies: Cortisol, aldosterone, ACTH stimulation, dexamethasone suppression (overnight) Urine Studies: 17- ketosteroid, aldosterone, free cortisol. Cortisol.................. 5–25 g/100 mL
Diagnostic studies of the Endocrine system 24 hours urine collection The time of this first discarded voiding is considered the start of the test. Any urine collected from this time forward for 24 hours is saved. At the end of the 24-hour period, the patient is again asked to urinate, but this time the urine is saved.
Signs and Symptoms of endocrinal disorders Change in energy level. Fatigue. Change in the patient’s tolerance of heat and cold. Recent change in body weight. Change in fat distribution.
Signs and Symptoms of endocrinal disorders Fluid loss or retention. Change in sexual function. Secondary change in sex characteristics Change in mood, memory, and ability to concentrate. Change in skin texture. Eye changes, such as exophthalmoses.
Signs and Symptoms of endocrinal disorders Change in physical appearance ( appearance of facial hair in women, moon face, buffalo hump. thinning of the skin obesity of the trunk and thinness of the extremities, increased size of the feet and hands, oedema) Elevated or decreased blood pressure.