CMOS Circuits.

Presentation on theme: "CMOS Circuits."— Presentation transcript:

CMOS Circuits

Combination and Sequential

Static Combinational Network
CMOS Circuits Pull-up network-PMOS Pull-down network- NMOS Networks are complementary to each other When the circuit is dormant, no current flows between supply lines. Number of the NMOS transistors (PMOS transistors) equals to the number of the inputs. Output load is capacitive PMOS Network NMOS Inputs Output VDD

NAND Gates Transistors in Parallel Transistors in Series
1/Rcheff = (1/Rch1) + (1/Rch2) Transistors in Series Rcheff = Rch1 + Rch2

CMOS NAND Gate DC Analysis Two possible scenarios:
1. Both inputs are toggling 2. One input is toggling, the other one set high Assumptions: MP2=MP1=MP MN1=MN2=MN W/L for MP = (W/L)p W/L for MN = (W/L)n Inverter VTC

To obtain equal Rise and Fall time,
Gate Sizing To obtain equal Rise and Fall time, Size the series / parallel transistors to have an equivalent of a single PU or PD inverter transistor in your design

Sizing the CMOS Gate

NAND Gates: Analysis Scenario #1- Both inputs are toggling
L-H > (W/L)eff = 2(W/L)p H-L > (W/L)eff = 1/2(W/L)n KR|NAND = 1/4 KR|INV Scenario #2- One input is toggling L-H > (W/L)eff = (W/L)p KR|NAND = 1/2 KR|INV Vin Inverter One input toggling V OH Two inputs toggling Vin=Vout V OL Vx2 Vx1 Vout

NAND Gates: Analysis Switching Analysis Scenario #1-
Both inputs are toggling tPLH |NAND = 1/2tPLH |INVERTER tPHL |NAND = 2tPHL |INVERTER Scenario #2- One input is toggling tPLH |NAND = tPLH |INVERTER

NAND Gate: Power Dissipation
Pac= α.f . C VDD2 A B X α = P (X=1). P (X=0) assuming A and B have equal probabilities for 1 and 0 α = (1/4). (3/4)= 3/16 C = CL + C parasitic

Increasing the inputs

NOR Gate: Analysis DC Analysis/ AC Analysis Two possible scenarios:
1. Both inputs are toggling (one is set low) 2. One input is toggling, the other one set high Assumptions: AP2=BP1=MP AN1=BN2=MN W/L for MP = (W/L)p W/L for MN = (W/L)n Compare with a CMOS inverter: MP/MN KR, and the shift in VTC Propagation delay tPLH and tPHL

4 INPUT NOR Gate Very slow rise time and rise delays
VDD A B C D L X Very slow rise time and rise delays Could be compensated by increasing of PMOS transistor size. Implications: Silicon Area Input capacitance

Practical Considerations
1. Minimize the use of NOR gates 2. Minimize the fan-in of NOR gates 3. Limit the fan-in to 4 for NAND gates 4. Use De morgan’s theorem to reduce the number of fan-in per gate Example:

Complex CMOS Gate

Reducing Output Capacitance

Pseudo nMOS

Pseudo nMOS NAND/NOR Gates
From Lecture #4 For acceptable operation WN=1.5 WP for our Process respecting min WP

Pseudo nMOS Complex Gates
From Lecture #4 For acceptable operation WN=1.5 WP for our Process respecting min WP

CASCODE LOGIC Lad is cross coupled pMOS transistors
Logic is series and parallel complementary transistors Input and Output are in Complementary forms

CSACODE Inverter/Nand Gate

CASCODE Complex Gate

DCVS trees for a full adder Sum and Carry Pull-Down Networks
S’(A,B,C) = A’BC’ + A’B’C + ABC + AB’C’ S (A,B,C) = A’B’C’ + A’BC + ABC’ + AB’C C(A,B,C) = AB + BC + AC

Transmission Gate Bi-directional switch, passes digital signals
Less complex and more versatile than AND gate Passes analog signals Problems: Large ON resistance during transitions of input signals Large input and output capacitance (useful for data storage applications) Capacitive coupling Applications: Multiplexers, encoders, latches, registers various combinational logic circuits C A B C

NMOS/PMOS as Pass Transistors
NMOS Transistor Passes weak “1” signal Vo = VDD -VTN Passes “0” signal undegraded C Vo VDD -VTN Vi Vo CL VDD -VTN Vi PMOS Transistor Passes “1” signal undegraded Passes weak “0” signal Vo= -VTP Vo C Vi Vo -VTP CL Vi -VTP

TX Gate: Characteristics
Vo Vin 0V |VTP| VDD-VTN VDD nmos:lin nmos:sat nmos:off pmos:sat pmos:lin pmos:lin

AND, NAND A B F 1

OR, NOR A B F 1

A multiplexer C A B F 1

XOR A B F 1

Four to one multiplexer

TX Gate: Layout C VDD P+ P+ Vi VO N+ N+ C VSS C C
For data path structure

NAND Gates: Layout Layout Transistors in Series
Transistors in Parallel

NAND Gates: Layout VDD Via Metal II X A B GND

NOR Gate: Layout VDD X B A GND

Analysis and Design of Complex Gate
1. Construct the schematic 2. Determine the logic function. 3. Determine transistor sizes. 4. Determine the input pattern to cause slowest and fastest operations. 5. Determine the worst case rise delay (tPLH)and fall delay (tPHL) 6. Determine the best case rise and fall delays. active (diffusion) n+ layer metal polysilicon contact p+ layer A B C D E F VDD OUT N-well GND A B C D E F