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The Structure of Matter Matter – Anything that has mass and takes up space Mass – The amount of matter in an object.

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Presentation on theme: "The Structure of Matter Matter – Anything that has mass and takes up space Mass – The amount of matter in an object."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Structure of Matter Matter – Anything that has mass and takes up space Mass – The amount of matter in an object

2 Molecule – The smallest particle of a substance (such as water) that can still be identified as that substance (Latin = little mass) Ex. – 60 million H 2 O – diameter of a penny

3 Ex. All water molecules are the same -Once a molecule is divided it is no longer that substance Ex. H 2 O H 2 Not water O Not water O HH

4 Physical & Chemical Properties of Matter Physical Properties – A characteristic of matter that can be observed by using any of your senses Ex. Hardness, density, melting pt. / boiling pt., State (solid, liquid, gas) Size, shape, color, odor, taste

5 Physical & Chemical Properties of Matter Chemical Properties – A description of how one kind of matter behaves in the presence of another kind of matter. Ex. Vinegar & baking soda - When vinegar is added to baking soda, CO 2 is produced

6 States of Matter State Definite Shape Definite Volume Solid Liquid Gas No Yes No Solid LiquidGas

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8 Solid

9 Liquid

10 Gas

11 Plasma Plasma- State of matter where gas molecules have separated into electrically charged particles Ex. STARS (fusion)

12 Physical & Chemical Changes Physical Change- a change in which the form or appearance of matter changes but not its composition Ex. Shape – crumpled paper Dissolving – Koolaid Change in State

13 Physical Changes Solid Liquid Gas Freezing Melting Condensation Vaporization Deposition Sublimation - Only the MOTION of the molecules has changed!

14 Chemical Changes Chemical Change – a change in which the composition of a substance changes Ex. Fireworks, Rust - causes a new substance to form.

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16 Chemical Changes Signs of Chemical Changes - Color ChangesEx. Trees, apples, toast - Energy Released – fire – heat, light Gained – cooking/cake

17 Chemical Changes Signs of Chemical Changes - OdorEx. Rotten food - Bubbles formed Ex. Vinegar + Baking soda Antacid

18 Chemical Changes Signs of Chemical Changes - Solid formed - Precipitate Ex. Sodium iodide = lead nitrate - Not easily reversed Ex. Ice melting vs. Wood burning Physical Chemical EASY HARD VS.

19 Anton Lavoisier – 18 th Century The LAW of Conservation of Mass- - States that mass is neither created nor destroyed (and as a result, the mass of the substance before a physical or chemical change is equal to the mass of the substances present after the change) Ex. Apple cut up, candle burning

20 Gases The Kinetic Theory of Matter- - The scientific principal that says that all matter is made of particles whose MOTION determines if the matter is solid, liquid, or gas

21 -Each of the 3 states of matter is called a phase State Definite Shape Definite Volume Solid Liquid Gas No Yes No

22 4 Properties of Gases - explained by the Kinetic theory of matter 1. Gas molecules move VERY FAST -A gas is mostly empty space (large distance between gas molecules) -Particles collide MANY times per second (particles are NOT affected by collisions) - No definite shape, they expand to fill all available space

23 2.Moving gas molecules cause pressure Ex. Balloon (All that moving and colliding into things causes a force to be applied) Pressure- The amount of force applied to a unit of area

24 3.Gases have NO definite volume -can be crowded together -This the pressure (more collisions) -can be allowed to expand -This the pressure (fewer collisions)

25 4.The temperature of a gas measures how fast molecules move - Heat = in particle movement (particles tend to move further apart) - volume or the pressure Ex. Bicycle tire on a hot day - Heat = in particle movement

26 Absolute Zero - -The Temperature at which particles of matter stop moving -273 o C -No Kinetic Energy at absolute zero -Kelvin (K) Temperature scale - -A temperature scale on which zero is equal to absolute zero

27 GAS LAWS! Boyles Law Pressure = Volume No Temperature change

28 V 1. P 1 = V 2. P 2 Ex. The air in a balloon occupies a space of 1000mL and has a pressure of 5 N /cm 2. When Gary grabs the balloon the pressure increases to 10 N /cm 2. What is the new volume of the balloon? V 1 = V 2 = P2=P2=P2=P2=

29 V 1 = 1000mL V 2 = ? mL P 1 =5 N /cm 2 P 2 =10 N /cm = V V 1. P 1 = V 2. P = V = = V 2 V 2 = 500 mL

30 GAS LAWS! Charles Law Temperature = Volume V 1. T 2 = V 2. T 1

31 V 1. T 2 = V 2. T 1 Charles Law 10 o C V 1 = V 2 = T 2 = T 1 = 30 o C 30mL ? mL 30mL 30 o C ? mL 10 o C

32 V 1. T 2 = V 2. T 1 Charles Law 10 o C V 1 = V 2 = T 2 = T 1 = 30 o C 30mL ? mL 30mL 30 o C ? mL 10 o C = V = V = V 2 V 2 = 90mL

33 Solids & Liquids (the molecules stay in a fixed patteren) Solids- A piece of solid matter cannot change shape by itself Ex. crystal

34 Crystal- A solid whose orderly arrangement of particles gives it a regular shape - The shape (of the crystal) is determined by the way the particles are arranged -Almost all solids are made of crystals Ex. salt (different crystals break in different ways)

35 Super cooled liquids- Solids that have been cooled soooooo quickly that they have NO crystal pattern -Almost all solids are made of crystals Ex. Volcanic glass

36 Liquids- molecules (can move from one place to another) have NO fixed pattern. -Can flow (change shape) - when not moving it will have a level surface

37 Change to a Liquid -Heat is added (to a solid) - Motion / Temp - particles cant stay in crystal pattern

38 Change to a Liquid Melting point- the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid - each crystalline solid has its own melting point Mercury = -39 o C Salt = 801 o C Sugar = 186 o C Water = 0 o C

39 Change to a Liquid Heat of fusion- the amount of heat required to change 1 gram of solid to a liquid - the energy used to break the crystalline structure (at the same temp no temp change)

40 Sublimation - Changing from a Solid Gas Ex. Dry ice

41 Change to a Gas - In most liquids (at ordinary Temps.) Some molecules have enough energy to (escape and) become a gas Ex. Water evaporation Heat = evaporation

42 Boiling point –The Temp (at ordinary pressure) at which the molecules of a liquid have enough energy to become a gas

43 Exact boiling point depends on: 1. Energy needed to make particles separate 2. Pressure of the air pressure = boiling point - Water (at normal pressure) will never be hotter than 100 o C

44 Heat of Vaporization- The amount of heat required to change 1 gram of liquid to a gas (No temperature change)


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