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Chapter 2 – Physical Science

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1 Chapter 2 – Physical Science
Properties of Matter Chapter 2 – Physical Science

2 Kinetic Theory All matter is made of atoms and molecules that act like tiny particles These particles are always in motion. The higher the temperature, the faster they move At the same temp., more massive particles move slower than less massive particles

3 States of Matter Solid = definite volume, definite shape
Liquid = definite volume, no definite shape Gas = no definite volume, no definite shape Plasma = gas-like, no definite shape or volume

4 Solids Have a rigid structure
Particles have almost no freedom to change position, low KE Still vibrate around a fixed location

5 Liquids Take the shape of their container
Particles are held close together, but not attracted as strongly as particles in a solid, higher KE Classified as a fluid because it can flow

6 Gases Free to spread in all directions
Under standard conditions, gas particles move rapidly, high KE Exert pressure, but can be compressed into a smaller volume

7 Plasma very high KE - particles collide with enough energy to break into charged particles (+/-) gas-like, no definite shape or volume stars, fluorescent light bulbs, TV tubes

8 Thermal Expansion Most matter expands when heated & contracts when cooled  Temp causes  KE - Particles collide with more force & spread out Examples: Sidewalk dividers Thermometers

9 Changes of State Changing states of matter requires energy

10 Changes of State Evaporation = Condensation = Melting = Freezing =
Sublimation = Liquid -> Gas Gas -> Liquid Solid -> Liquid Liquid -> Solid Solid -> Gas

11 Conservation Law of Conservation of Mass Law of Conservation of Energy
Mass cannot be created or destroyed Mass of reactants = mass of products Law of Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed Energy is converted from one form to another Book page 51 - matchstick

12 Part 2 Looking at matter and observing its qualities

13 Physical Properties Properties that do not change the chemical nature of matter Examples: color, smell, freezing point, boiling point, melting point, magnetic attraction or repulsion, texture, volume, mass, weight, viscosity and density

14 Physical Properties List some physical properties:

15 Chemical Properties Properties that do change the chemical nature of matter Examples are: flammability, reactivity with water, pH, types of bonds

16 Physical Changes A change in the physical form or properties of a substance that occurs without a change in composition Examples: change in state, dissolving, breaking, changing shape Can usually be reversed

17 Physical Changes Name the physical change occurring: Melting Boiling

18 Physical Changes Evaporation

19 Physical Changes Sublimation

20 Chemical Changes A change that occurs when a substance changes composition by forming one or more new substances Examples: burning, rusting, cooking Hints: heat or light may be given off, smell or color change

21 What Type of Change?

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