# Chapter 2 – Physical Science

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Chapter 2 – Physical Science
Properties of Matter Chapter 2 – Physical Science

Kinetic Theory All matter is made of atoms and molecules that act like tiny particles These particles are always in motion. The higher the temperature, the faster they move At the same temp., more massive particles move slower than less massive particles

States of Matter Solid = definite volume, definite shape
Liquid = definite volume, no definite shape Gas = no definite volume, no definite shape Plasma = gas-like, no definite shape or volume

Solids Have a rigid structure
Particles have almost no freedom to change position, low KE Still vibrate around a fixed location

Liquids Take the shape of their container
Particles are held close together, but not attracted as strongly as particles in a solid, higher KE Classified as a fluid because it can flow

Gases Free to spread in all directions
Under standard conditions, gas particles move rapidly, high KE Exert pressure, but can be compressed into a smaller volume

Plasma very high KE - particles collide with enough energy to break into charged particles (+/-) gas-like, no definite shape or volume stars, fluorescent light bulbs, TV tubes

Thermal Expansion Most matter expands when heated & contracts when cooled  Temp causes  KE - Particles collide with more force & spread out Examples: Sidewalk dividers Thermometers

Changes of State Changing states of matter requires energy

Changes of State Evaporation = Condensation = Melting = Freezing =
Sublimation = Liquid -> Gas Gas -> Liquid Solid -> Liquid Liquid -> Solid Solid -> Gas

Conservation Law of Conservation of Mass Law of Conservation of Energy
Mass cannot be created or destroyed Mass of reactants = mass of products Law of Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed Energy is converted from one form to another Book page 51 - matchstick

Part 2 Looking at matter and observing its qualities

Physical Properties Properties that do not change the chemical nature of matter Examples: color, smell, freezing point, boiling point, melting point, magnetic attraction or repulsion, texture, volume, mass, weight, viscosity and density

Physical Properties List some physical properties:

Chemical Properties Properties that do change the chemical nature of matter Examples are: flammability, reactivity with water, pH, types of bonds

Physical Changes A change in the physical form or properties of a substance that occurs without a change in composition Examples: change in state, dissolving, breaking, changing shape Can usually be reversed

Physical Changes Name the physical change occurring: Melting Boiling
Condensation

Physical Changes Evaporation

Physical Changes Sublimation

Chemical Changes A change that occurs when a substance changes composition by forming one or more new substances Examples: burning, rusting, cooking Hints: heat or light may be given off, smell or color change

What Type of Change?

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