# Matter and Energy. Matter Matter is what everything is made of. Matter is anything that is made of atoms and molecules. Matter is anything that has mass.

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Matter and Energy

Matter Matter is what everything is made of. Matter is anything that is made of atoms and molecules. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.

Properties of Matter Properties are the characteristics of a substance. Three major properties of all matter are mass, volume, and density.

Mass Mass is the amount of matter in an object or substance. Mass is measured in kilograms(kg), grams(g), and milligrams(mg). Mass is measured with a scale.

Volume All matter takes up space. The amount of space that an object or substance takes up is volume. Volume is measured in cubic centimeters (cm 3 ) and cubic meters (m 3 ).

Density Amount of mass per volume. Water has a density of 1g/cm 3 1 dime = 1 gram

Compare densities to water Density of Iron is 8g/cubic cm Density of Nickel is 8.912g/cubic cm.

Physical Property A physical property is a property that can be observed, measured, or changed without changing the substance itself.

Chemical Property The ability of a substance to change into a new substance with different properties.

Atoms and Molecules An atom is the smallest particle of a substance that has all the characteristics of that substance. atoms and molecules Atoms are mainly empty space.

Parts of an atom Nucleus is made up of the protons and neutrons. Protons have a positive charge, and neutrons have no charge. Electrons are in clouds around the nucleus. Electrons are negatively charged.

Elements A pure substance made of only one kind of atom. All the atoms of an element are alike. There are about 110 known elements on Earth. 94 occur naturally. What elements are in you?

Molecules Atoms join together to form molecules. A molecule can be made up of atoms of one element or two or more elements. Molecules are held together by chemical bonds. Chemical bonds contain energy Molecule example: H 2 O, CO 2, O 2, N 2

Periodic Table Lists all elements arranged by properties and by atomic number. An element’s atomic number equals the number of protons in one atom.

Phase Changes Watch the water molecules change phase.

States of Matter

Speed of particles Low energy = cold = slow Medium energy = warm = faster High energy = hot = fastest To make particles move faster, add energy. To make particles slower, remove energy states of matter

Solids Definite shape and volume Definite means the object won’t change it’s shape on its own. A solid will keep its volume.

Crystalline Solid Particles have a regular repeating pattern Melts at a distinct temperature

Amorphous Solid Do not melt at a distinct temperature Becomes softer and softer as it is heated Glass is a good example of an amorphous solid

Crystalline vs. Amorphous Regular repeating pattern Particles not arranged in repeating pattern solids

Journal Quick write Use the kinetic theory of matter to describe the following situations. (speed of particles) how butter melts in a hot pan. Why ice feels cold to the touch.

Liquids Liquids have a definite volume but not a definite shape. They take the shape of their container

Properties of liquids Surface tension: an inward force or pull among the molecules that bring the molecules closer together. Viscosity: liquids resistance to flowing

Gases Gases have no definite volume or shape.

Properties When working with a gas you need know it’s temperature, volume and pressure.

volume Measured in cubic cm, cubic meters, mL, Liters, and other units. Volume of a gas is the volume of the container. Gas can be compressed into a tank.

Pressure Force of it’s outer push on the container divided by the area of the walls of the container. Pressure = force area How does an air pump work? pressure experiment how to make a lung model

Temperature Measure of average energy of random motion of the particles of matter. The particles of a gas are moving very fast, at 20 degrees Celsius gas particles travel at 500m/s. temperature

How hot air balloons work hot air balloons

Plasma Atoms that have had their electrons stripped away by heat and pressure. These electrons are free to move about 99% of the known universe is plasma. plasma plasma from water electrolysishttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ALFYm_6IlX8&list=PL37TextelYlsVWwiAzlsgoLkhKHtPRVoJ

Changing states Melting point Temperature at which the substance changes from a solid to a liquid. m.p. of water = 0°C, 32°F Melting point and freezing point are the same, just in opposite directions.

Melting point At a solid’s melting point, its particles vibrate so fast that they break free from their fixed positions.

Journal Quick write Explain using the graph what happens to snow on Mt. Rainier during the spring and summer.

Changing states Boiling point Temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas B.p. of water = 100°C, 212°F Condensation point and boiling point are the same, just in opposite direction.

Vaporization point Vaporization occurs when the particles in a liquid gain enough energy to move independently.

How do clouds form? cloud in a bottle

Sublimation Occurs when the surface particles of a solid gain enough energy that they form a gas. Dry ice sublimates because the solid CO2 absorbs thermal energy rapidly. Fog forms from cooling water vapor around the dry ice.

Law of Conservation of matter Matter is not created or destroyed, only changed from one form to another! i.e. burning match, vinegar and baking soda, mass on the sun. law of conservation of matter

Chemical Reactions iron with sulfur to form iron sulfide Baking soda and vinegar Match burning Matter is conserved in all reactions!

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