4 Physical Properties of Matter Physical properties are characteristics of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance into something else.ColorHardnessTasteLengthWidthHeightWeightMassVolumeDensityAbility to conduct heat, electricity, or soundAbility to become a magnet
5 Mass – The amount of matter in an object. Scientists use a balance scale to measure mass.The object’s unknown mass is compared to a known mass.Mass is recorded in grams or kilograms
6 Weight – A measure of the pull of gravity on an object.
10 Volume = length X width X height expressed in cubic units Volume – The amount of space an object takes up.Volume = length X width X heightV = l x w x hexpressed in cubic unitsSimple enough when it is a box, but what if the solid is irregular?What if you wanted to know the volume of an apple?What then?
11 Volume can be found by measuring Displacement Measurement of the amount of liquid that a solid displaces.1cu3=1ml-
12 You can use a graduated cylinder such as one of these! How you ask?
13 When using a graduated cylinder to measure, you must be careful to measure the bottom of the level of liquid. This curved look of the liquid is known as the meniscus.
14 Density Concentration of Matter in an object Density equals mass divided by volume
15 States of MatterNo, not those states, these states…..
17 3 States or Phases of Matter Solid:Has a definite shapeHas a definite volumeMolecules are very close togetherLiquid:Does not have a definite shape (will take the shape of a container)Molecules are a little further apart and vibrate a bit quicklyGas:Does not have a definite volumeMolecules are very far apart and vibrate very quickly!
19 Changes in state are physical. They do not change the substance. Changes in state are reversible!Freezing - liquid to solidMelting - solid to liquidBoiling - liquid to gasCondensation - gas to liquidSublimation - solid to gasEvaporation - when particles escape from a nonboiling liquid and become a gas
21 Melting and Boiling Points Melting Point & Freezing Pointare the same!Water freezes at 0C or 32FBoiling PointTemperature at which a substance changesfrom a liquid to a gas.Water boils at100C or 212F
22 Fahrenheit and Celsius Temperatures Conversion ofFahrenheit and Celsius TemperaturesFormula°C x 9/ = °F(°F - 32) x 5/9 = °C
23 MixturesCombination of 2 or moredifferent kinds of matter thatkeep their own physicalproperties and can be easily separated.Solution - Type of mixture in which particles of 2 or more substances are mixed and not easily separated.
24 Solubility - the ability to be dissolved. Solutions are not easily separatedSugar is soluble in water.Pepper is not!
25 Suspension - a mixture of liquids with particles of a solid which may not dissolve in the liquid. The solid may be separated from the liquid by leaving it to stand, or by filtrationExamples: sand in wateroil in water
26 Chemical Properties of Matter Changes in which one or more new substances are formed are calledchemical changes or reactions.
27 Marshmallow melting is physical change. Marshmallow burning is a chemical change
28 Sodium + Chlorine = Sodium Chloride (Salt) These are examples of chemicalchange or reactivity because light or heator bothareproduced.Burning Candle
29 Reactivity - The ability of a substance to react chemically Clues that identify reactivityor chemical change:Change in colorProduction of lightProduction of heatProduction of a gas
30 Baking soda + vinegar = gas Carbon dioxide is produced ReactivityExample!Baking soda + vinegar = gasCarbon dioxide is produced
31 ReactivityExample!Burning Candle - heat and light are produced
32 Chemical Reaction Iron rusting is an example of chemical reaction or changeA change in color occursIron conducts electricity Rust does not conduct electricityDifferent densitiesDifferent melting points
33 Chemical property of being able to burn. CombustibilityChemical property of being able to burn.
34 Used to identify substances based Flame TestUsed to identify substances basedon the color of the flame they producewhen burned.
35 Law of Conservation of Matter Matter is neither created nor destroyed during aphysical or chemical change.The amount of matter is always the same.