Presentation on theme: "Matter: Properties & Change 6.P.2.1 Recognize that all matter is made up of atoms and atoms of the same element are all alike, but are different from the."— Presentation transcript:
Matter: Properties & Change 6.P.2.1 Recognize that all matter is made up of atoms and atoms of the same element are all alike, but are different from the atoms of other elements. 6.P.2.2 Explain the effect of heat on the motion of atoms through a description of what happens to particles during a change in phase. 6.P.2.3 Compare the physical properties of pure substances that are independent of the amount of matter present including density, boiling point, melting point and solubility to properties that are dependent on the amount of matter present to include volume, mass and weight. Essential Vocabulary
Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space. Phases of Matter
Element A pure substance that is made up of only one kind of atom.
Atom The smallest unit of a pure substance that still has the properties of that substance.
Molecule The smallest part of a substance formed by the chemical bonding of two or more atoms and that still retains its chemical composition and properties.
Mass Measure of the amount of matter in an object.
Solid A state of matter that has definite shape and volume.
Liquid A state of matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape.
Gas A state of matter that has no definite shape or volume.
Volume A physical property that describes the amount of space that matter occupies.
Density Derived units = Combination of base units Volume (m 3 or cm 3 or mL) length length length Or measured using a graduated cylinder D = MVMV 1 cm 3 = 1 mL 1 dm 3 = 1 L Density (kg/m 3 or g/cm 3 or g/mL) The mass per unit volume of a substance at a particular temperature and pressure.
Boiling Point The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas.
Freezing Point The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a solid.
Melting Point The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid.
Solubility A physical property that describes the ability of a substance to dissolve in a solvent.
Insoluble A substance will not dissolve in a solvent.
Property Describes how an object looks, feels, or acts.
Physical Property A property that can be observed or measured without changing an object, or any part of the materials it is made of, into something else.
Chemical Property A property that describes the ability of a substance to react with other materials and form new substances.
Physical Change A change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition. For example - phase changes or crushing a can.
Chemical Change A change in the chemical composition of a substance to produce a new material with new properties. For example: burning, rusting, and photosynthesis.
Solvent A liquid, typically one other than water, used for dissolving other substances.
Solute Any substance that is dissolved in a liquid solvent to create a solution.
Pure Substance A substance that is not mixed with another; elements and compounds are pure substances
Weight A measure of the force of gravity on an object.
Particles Very small pieces of solid or liquid matter.
Homogeneous Mixture Parts of a mixture are evenly distributed.
Heterogeneous Mixture Parts of a mixture are not evenly distributed.
Mixture Formed when two or more substances are combined physically.
Compound Formed when two or more substances are combined chemically.
Evaporation When a substance changes from a liquid to a gas.
Meniscus The curved surface level of water in a graduated cylinder.
Viscosity The thickness of a fluid or the resistance of fluid to flow. A high viscosity fluid will not flow as easily as a low viscosity fluid (Mud will not move as easily as water).
Amorphous A type of solid that forms without a fixed pattern.
Crystal A type of solid that forms when a collection of atoms is repeated in the same arrangement over and over again throughout a substance.
Vaporization Change of state from a liquid to a gas at or above its boiling point.
Sublimation Change of state from a solid to a gas without first becoming a liquid.
Condensation Change of state from a gas to a liquid, usually due to cooling or compression.
Condensation Point The temperature at which a gas becomes a liquid. This happens when energy is removed and gas is cooled.
Deposition Change of state from gas to a solid without first becoming a liquid.
Compress To press or squeeze together.
Energy Basic property defined as the capacity to do work. Energy in the form of heat is needed to change from one phase to another. The basic forms of energy include electrical, chemical, mechanical, nuclear and radiant (light).
Phase A physical condition or stage of matter. Another word for phase is "state".
State A physical condition or stage of matter. Another word for state is "phase."
Plasma Considered a 4th "state of matter. Plasma is a lot like gas but is made up of free electrons and ions. Electricity (a form of energy) flowing through the gas in a neon sign, or a fluorescent light make plasma in those lights.
Pressure The measure of force that acts on a unit area.
Vapor Another word for gas. Vapor is the word used to describe gases that are usually found as liquids, such as water.