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Chapter 16 Solids, Liquids, and Gases. Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Solids, Liquids, and Gases. Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

2 Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space

3 4 States of matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Each is designated by the energy, movement, and behavior of the particles

4 Kinetic Theory An explanation of how particles in matter behave 1. All matter is composed of small particles (atoms, molecules, and ions) 2. These particles are in constant, random motion 3. These particles are colliding with each other and the sides of their container

5 Solid State Energy Very little energy Movement Vibrate against each other, but don’t move around much Particle Spacing Very little space between particles, packed closely together Volume/Shape Definite volume and definite shape Particles have a specific type of geometric arrangement that they form in when cooled Determined by chemical and physical properties of solids

6 Liquid State Energy More Energy than solids Movement Flow around each other Particle Spacing Particles have space between them Volume/Shape Definite volume but NO definite shape

7 Gas State Energy Tons of Energy! Movement Flow around past each other Particle Spacing Particles are far apart Volume/Shape No definite volume and no definite shape

8 Plasma State Plasma – An electrically charged gas Created at very high temperatures (like on the sun) (collisions between particles result in the electrons being stripped from the atom) Most common state of matter in the universe (not Earth) Found on stars Found in lightning bolts, neon, fluorescent light tubes

9 Diffusion Diffusion – the spreading of particles throughout a given volume until they are uniformly distributed Occurs in solids and liquids, but most rapidly in gases Ex. Spray air freshener, dye in water

10 Changes in State ENERGY of the particles influences the state of matter Temperature is something we can easily measure instead of Energy Increased Energy Molecules move faster and spread out Temperature increases Decreased Energy Molecules move slower and are closer together Temperature decreases

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12 Phase changes Due to changing in the movement (Energy) of the particles Solid to Liquid and Back Freezing Point Point at which liquid becomes solid Melting Point Point at which solids become liquid

13 Phase Changes Liquid to Gas and Back Boiling Point – Point at which liquid becomes gas AKA: vaporization 2 types of vaporization Evaporation – occurs at the liquid’s surface and even at a temp. below the liquids boiling point Boiling – occurs through a liquid at a specific temperature Condensation – gas changes to liquid Ex: Mirror fogging up

14 Phase Changes Heat of fusion – The amount of energy required to change a substance from the solid phase to the liquid phase at its melting point Heat of vaporization – the amount of energy required for the liquid at its boiling point to become a gas

15 Thermal Expansion An increase in the size of a substance when the temperature is increased Kinetic Theory – particles move faster and separate as the temperature rises -> causes expansion of the entire object

16 Water Exception to thermal expansion Have highly charged areas that affect the behavior b/c the molecules orient themselves according to charge, empty spaces occur, so water expands when going from a liquid to a solid


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