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CHAPTER Images shutterstock.com 2 Nutritional Needs.

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2 CHAPTER Images shutterstock.com 2 Nutritional Needs

3 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Name the key nutrients, describe their functions, and list important sources of each. Analyze the effects of various nutrient deficiencies and excesses. Explain the processes of digestion, absorption, and metabolism. Objectives

4 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Nutrients Food provides nutrients, which are necessary for good healthnutrients Nutrition examines how the body uses nutrientsNutrition If you do not eat the foods your body needs, you may suffer from malnutritionmalnutrition continued

5 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Nutrients Nonessential nutrients are substances the body can make Essential nutrients are substances the body cannot make and must be supplied by the foods you eat continued

6 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Nutrients There are six main groups of essential nutrients: 1.carbohydrates 2.fats 3.proteins 4.vitamins 5.minerals 6.water continued © grafvision/Shutterstock © shinyshot/Shutterstock © Kirsty Pargeter/Shutterstock © Elena Schweitzer /Shutterstock © Helenlbuxton/Shutterstock © Jakub Pavlinec/Shutterstock

7 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Nutrients Failure to get enough of the needed nutrients may result in a deficiency diseasedeficiency disease Consuming too much of some nutrients can result in toxicitytoxicity

8 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Dietary Supplements Doctors may recommend dietary supplements to help make up for nutrient shortages in the dietdietary supplements Some dietary supplements provide nonnutrient substances, such as herbs and some antioxidantsantioxidants continued

9 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Dietary Supplements © Larisa Lofitskaya/Shutterstock Besides supplements, fortified foods can be a source of added nutrients fortified foods

10 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the bodys main energy sourceCarbohydrates They are classified as simple or complex based on molecular structure They are carried through the bloodstream in the form of glucoseglucose © Anatoliy Samara/Shutterstock

11 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Functions of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are sources of energy for the body and brain Fiber does not provide energy, but can helpFiber –reduce the risk of heart disease –speed food through the body –dilute carcinogens (cancer-causing agents) –reduce the risk of cancer

12 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sources of Carbohydrates Sugars, soft drinks, and candies are sources of simple carbohydrates Breads and cereals provide starches Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains offer fiber © Cheryl E. Davis/Shutterstock © Seregam /Shutterstock © Drozdowski /Shutterstock

13 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Carbohydrate Deficiencies and Excesses A carbohydrate deficiency can cause the body to use protein as an energy source This can interfere with the normal growth and repair of body tissues and potentially create a chemical imbalance Consuming too many simple carbohydrates can result in nutrient shortages and excess calories

14 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fats Fats belong to a group of compounds called lipidsFats Lipids, which include both fats and oils, contain fatty acidsfatty acids Based on the amount of hydrogen atoms found in their molecules, fatty acids are classified as saturated or unsaturated

15 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Types of Fats Saturated fatty acids have as many hydrogen atoms as they can hold Unsaturated fatty acids have fewer hydrogen atoms than they can hold –monounsaturated –polyunsaturated Hydrogenation makes unsaturated fatty acids saturated and creates trans fatty acidsHydrogenationtrans fatty acids continued

16 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Types of Fats Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that serves important functions in the bodyCholesterol –Part of skin tissue –Aids in transport of fatty acids –Produces hormones

17 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Think Further Why dont you need to add cholesterol to your diet? Think Further © Josh Resnick /Shutterstock

18 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Functions of Fats Supply energy Carry certain types of vitamins Enhance flavor in foods Tenderize meats and baked goods Protect organs Insulate the body

19 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sources of Fats Eggs Dairy products Meats Fish Nuts Vegetable oils Olives Avocados © kiboka/Shutterstock

20 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fat Deficiencies and Excesses A diet low in fat may result in a loss of weight and energy Diets high in fat have been linked to heart disease, some cancers, and weight gain –No more than 35 percent of the calories in your daily diet should come from fat –No more than 10 percent of total calories should come from saturated fat

21 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Proteins Proteins, the third category of essential nutrients, are made of amino acidsProteinsamino acids –Essential amino acids –Nonessential amino acids Complete proteins contain all nine essential amino acids Incomplete proteins are missing one or more of the essential amino acids

22 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Functions of Proteins Growth, maintenance, and repair of tissues Formation of enzymes, some hormones, and antibodies Source of energy Regulation of bodily processes

23 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sources of Proteins Meat Poultry Fish Dairy products Eggs Dried beans Nuts © Liv friis-larsen/Shutterstock

24 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Protein Deficiencies and Excesses A protein deficiency can lead to protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) Excess protein in the diet will be converted to fat

25 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. In Your Opinion… What is your favorite source of protein? © shadow216 /Shutterstock © ffolas /Shutterstock In Your Opinion…

26 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Vitamins Each vitamin serves unique functionsvitamin The body cannot produce most vitamins in quantities large enough to meet nutritional needs A varied, nutritious diet is best to get the vitamins the body needs continued

27 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Vitamins Fat-soluble vitamins –vitamin A –vitamin D –vitamin E –vitamin K Water-soluble vitamins –vitamin C –thiamin –riboflavin –niacin –vitamin B 6 –folate –vitamin B 12 –pantothenic acid –biotin

28 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fat-Soluble Vitamins Vitamin A –aids the eyes with ability to see at night –promotes bone growth –keeps skin and other tissues healthy –found in liver, egg yolk, and whole milk –has higher values in orange and dark green fruits and vegetables continued

29 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fat-Soluble Vitamins Vitamin D –promotes the growth and mineralization of bones and teeth –found in eggs, liver, and fatty fish –used to fortify most milk, cereal, and margarine continued © Ildi Papp/Shutterstock

30 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fat-Soluble Vitamins Vitamin E –acts as an antioxidant –protects red and white bloods cells, fatty acids, and vitamin A –common in many food items, including fats and oils, whole-grain products, liver, eggs, whole milk dairy foods, and leafy green vegetables continued

31 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Fat-Soluble Vitamins Vitamin K –aids in blood clotting –produced in the intestinal tract –found in leafy green vegetables, cauliflower, organ meats, and egg yolk © Beneda Miroslav/Shutterstock

32 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Water-Soluble Vitamins Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) –helps form and maintain collagen, which holds body cells together –firms the walls of blood vessels –helps heal wounds and broken bones –helps create hemoglobin and fight infections –functions as a dietary antioxidant –found in many fresh fruits and vegetables continued

33 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Water-Soluble Vitamins B-complex vitamins work together in the body –folate –vitamin B 12 –biotin –thiamin –riboflavin –niacin –vitamin B 6 continued

34 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Water-Soluble Vitamins Thiamin (B 1 ) –helps the body release energy from food and promote normal appetite and digestion –found in nearly all foods except fats, oils, and refined sugars continued © Oliver Hoffmann/Shutterstock

35 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Water-Soluble Vitamins Riboflavin (B 2 ) –helps break down carbohydrates –helps cells use oxygen –keeps skin, tongue, and lips healthy –found in milk, eggs, oysters, leafy green vegetables, and whole-grain enriched cereal products continued

36 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Water-Soluble Vitamins Niacin –helps keep the nervous system, mouth, skin, tongue, and digestive tract healthy –helps cells use nutrients –found in meats, poultry, and peanuts –too much niacin can cause nausea, vomiting, and red flushing continued

37 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Water-Soluble Vitamins Vitamin B 6 –helps nerve tissues function normally –aids with the regeneration of red blood cells –helps break down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats –found in vegetables, muscle meats, and whole- grain cereals continued

38 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Water-Soluble Vitamins Folate –helps the body produce normal blood cells –folic acid is especially important during pregnancy –found in green vegetables, yogurt, fruits, and whole-grain cereals continued © wavebreakmedia ltd/Shutterstock

39 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Water-Soluble Vitamins Vitamin B 12 –promotes normal growth –aids in normal functioning of cells in bone marrow, nervous system, and intestines –found in animal protein foods and cereals Pantothenic Acid –helps the body use energy nutrients and make cholesterol –promotes growth –found in plant and animal tissues, yeast, and milk continued

40 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Water-Soluble Vitamins Biotin –aids in the breakdown of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins –essential part of several enzymes –found in kidney, liver, chicken, eggs, milk, fresh vegetables, and some fruits © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock

41 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Vitamin Deficiencies and Excesses Vitamin deficiencies can result in such conditions and diseases as night blindness, rickets, scurvy, beriberi, pellagra, and anemianight blindness ricketsscurvyberiberipellagra anemia

42 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Did You Know? The term vitamin was originally vitamine, a combination of the words vita and amine. Vita is Latin for life. Amine referred to amino acids, which scientists initially thought were part of the make up of vitamins. The final e was later dropped when scientists learned that vitamins did not contain amino acids. Did You Know?

43 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Minerals The body needs at least 21 minerals for good health, which can be obtained from a variety of foodsminerals Macrominerals are needed in large quantities per dayMacrominerals Trace elements, or microminerals, are needed in smaller quantities per dayTrace elements

44 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Macrominerals Calcium –combines with phosphorous to build and strengthen bones and teeth –helps blood clot –keeps the heart and nerves working properly –found in milk, fish, and green vegetables continued © Tarasyuk Igor/Shutterstock

45 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Macrominerals Phosphorous –works with calcium to build bones and teeth –helps the body store and release energy –found in meat, poultry, eggs, milk, and dairy products continued © Joe Gough/Shutterstock

46 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Macrominerals Magnesium –helps regulate the bodys temperature –keeps the nervous system working properly –found in whole grains and grain products, nuts, beans, meats, and dark green leafy vegetables continued

47 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Macrominerals Sodium, chloride, and potassium –work as a team to control osmosis –help the nervous system and muscles function –help cells absorb nutrients –common in the food supply and U.S. diet –sources include table salt, many types of seafood, many vegetables, and fruits

48 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Trace Elements Iron –helps form hemoglobin, which carries oxygen throughout the body –found in animal sources and leafy green vegetables Zinc –aids the immune system –promotes normal growth and development –found in meats and whole grains continued

49 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Trace Elements Iodine –helps regulate energy usage rate –found in seafood and iodized salt Fluoride –helps teeth develop and resist decay –may maintain bone health –found in water © Philip Lange/Shutterstock

50 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Mineral Deficiencies and Excesses Mineral deficiencies can cause such conditions as osteoporosis and goiterosteoporosisgoiter Research has shown there is a link between excess sodium amounts and hypertensionhypertension © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock

51 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Think Further Why do you need to vary your diet in order to consume the essential nutrients? © Bochkarev Photography/Shutterstock

52 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Water Water is the sixth essential nutrient Between 50 and 75 percent of body weight is water © DUSAN ZIDAR/Shutterstock

53 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Functions of Water Water aids digestion, cell growth and maintenance, chemical reactions, joint lubrication, and temperature regulation in the body Nearly all beverages and foods provide some water

54 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Water Intake and Excretion About 80 percent of water intake comes from liquids The body excretes most water through the kidneys as urine and the remaining through the skin, lungs, and feces © Jakub Pavlinec/Shutterstock

55 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Water Requirements Most people should consume about 1 ounce of fluid for every 2 pounds of body weight Climate, health, and eating habits affect water needs Thirst is the first symptom of water loss Too much water can result in water intoxication, a rare condition

56 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Digestion and Absorption Foods must go through the processes of digestion and absorption before the body can use the nutrients they contain digestion absorption © Anton Albert/Shutterstock

57 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Digestive Tract The digestive or gastrointestinal tract is about 30 feet long –esophagus –stomach –small intestine –large intestine © Oguz Aral/Shutterstock

58 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Digestion Process Mechanical phase –begins in the mouth when teeth chew food and break it down into smaller pieces –initiates contractions in the digestive tract, known as peristalsisperistalsis continued

59 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Digestion Process Chemical phase –begins in the mouth when food mixes with saliva saliva –gastric juices break down food in the stomach –the semiliquid leaves the stomach and enters the small intestine, where intestinal juices, pancreatic juices, and bile act on the food continued

60 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Digestion Process –digestive enzymes help break foods down into simple substances the body can absorb and use –once digestion is complete, absorption can take place –some substances then travel into the large intestine, which acts as a reservoir –the body excretes these materials in the feces

61 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Absorption Process Most absorption takes place in the small intestine The small intestine is lined with millions of villi, which aid in absorption © 3drenderings/Shutterstock

62 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Metabolism Metabolism takes place in the cells after the body absorbs nutrientsMetabolism Nutrients follow a distinct metabolic path Carbohydrates become glucose for energy or glycogen for storage continued

63 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Metabolism During fat metabolism, fats become fuel During protein metabolism, amino acids are used for cell maintenance and growth or as energy

64 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 1.What are the six essential nutrients? 1.carbohydrates 2.fats 3.proteins 4.vitamins 5.minerals 6.water Review

65 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 2. What is one function of each of the key nutrients? Answers will vary. 3. What are two important sources of each of the key nutrients? Answers will vary. Review

66 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 4. How can deficiencies and excesses of various nutrients affect the body? nutrient deficiencies can result in deficiency diseases, protein-energy malnutrition, night blindness, rickets, scurvy, beriberi, pellagra, anemia, osteoporosis, hypertension, and goiter; nutrient excesses can result in toxicity Review

67 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 5. What occurs in the body during the processes of digestion, absorption, and metabolism? digestion breaks food down into simple materials the body can use; absorption involves taking in nutrients and making them part of the body; metabolism involves chemical processes that take place in the cells after the body absorbs nutrients Review

68 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. absorption. The process of taking nutrients into the body and making them part of the body. amino acid. A chemical compound that serves as a building block of proteins. anemia. A condition resulting from deficiencies of various nutrients, which is characterized by a reduced number of red blood cells in the bloodstream. Glossary

69 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. antioxidant. A substance that prevents or slows down damage caused by chemical reactions involving oxygen. beriberi. A disease of the nervous system resulting from a thiamin deficiency, which is characterized by numbness in the ankles and legs followed by severe cramping and paralysis and potentially fatal heart disturbances. Glossary

70 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. carbohydrate. One of the six basic types of nutrients that is the bodys chief source of energy. cholesterol. A fatlike substance that occurs naturally in the body and is found in every cell. It occurs only in foods of animal origin. Glossary

71 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. deficiency disease. An illness caused by the lack of a sufficient amount of a nutrient. dietary supplement. A purified nutrient or nonnutrient substance that is manufactured or extracted from natural sources. Glossary

72 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. digestion. The bodily process of breaking food down into simpler compounds the body can use. fat. One of the six basic types of nutrients that is an important energy source belonging to a larger group of compounds called lipids. Glossary

73 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. fat-soluble vitamin. A vitamin that dissolves in fats and can be stored in the fatty tissues of the body. fatty acid. A chemical chain containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that is the basic component of all lipids. fiber. A form of complex carbohydrate from plants that humans cannot digest. Glossary

74 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. fortified food. A food to which nutrients are added in amounts greater than what would naturally occur in the food. glucose. The form of sugar carried in the bloodstream for energy use throughout the body. goiter. A visible enlargement of the thyroid gland resulting from an iodine deficiency. Glossary

75 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. hydrogenation. A process by which hydrogen atoms are chemically added to unsaturated fatty acids in liquid oils to turn the oils into more highly saturated solid fats. hypertension. High blood pressure. macromineral. A mineral needed in the diet in amounts of 100 or more milligrams each day. Glossary

76 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. malnutrition. A lack of the right proportions of nutrients over an extended period, which can be caused by an inadequate diet or the bodys inability to use the nutrients from foods. metabolism. The chemical processes that take place in the cells after the body absorbs nutrients. Glossary

77 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. mineral. One of the six basic types of nutrients that is an inorganic substance and becomes part of the bones, soft tissues, and body fluids. night blindness. A condition resulting from a vitamin A deficiency, which is characterized by a reduced ability to see in dim light. Glossary

78 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. nutrient. A chemical substance from food the body needs to live. nutrition. The study of how the body uses the nutrients in foods that are eaten. osteoporosis. A condition resulting from a calcium deficiency, which is characterized by porous, brittle bones. Glossary

79 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. pellagra. A disease resulting from a niacin deficiency that is characterized by skin lesions and digestive problems. Mental disorders and death may follow if left untreated. peristalsis. Waves of muscle contractions that push food through the digestive tract. Glossary

80 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. protein. One of the six basic types of nutrients, made up of amino acids, that is required for growth, repair, and maintenance of every body cell. protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). A condition that may result from a diet that does not contain enough protein and calories. Glossary

81 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. rickets. A disease resulting from a vitamin D deficiency, which is characterized by crooked legs and misshapen breast bones in children, and bone abnormalities in adults. saliva. A mucus- and enzyme-containing liquid secreted by the mouth that makes food easier to swallow and begins to break down starches. Glossary

82 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. scurvy. A disease resulting from a vitamin C deficiency, which is characterized by bleeding gums, loss of teeth, and internal bleeding. toxicity. Poisoning. trace element. A mineral needed in the diet in amounts less than 100 milligrams per day. Glossary

83 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. trans fatty acid. A fatty acid with an odd molecular shape that is created in hydrogenated oils and found naturally in dairy products, beef, and lamb. vitamin. One of the six basic types of nutrients that is a complex organic substance needed by the body in small amounts for normal growth, maintenance, and reproduction. Glossary

84 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. water-soluble vitamin. A vitamin that dissolves in water and is not stored in the body to any great extent. Glossary


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