Presentation on theme: "GCSE PHYSICAL EDUCATION REVISION GUIDE. Reasons for taking part in activity BenefitHow achieved Weight loss / improved body shape / look good Burning."— Presentation transcript:
GCSE PHYSICAL EDUCATION REVISION GUIDE
Reasons for taking part in activity BenefitHow achieved Weight loss / improved body shape / look good Burning off calories through increased level of work Provide a physical challenge Might not do anything physically normally, gives a chance to do so. Improved healthReduced blood pressure / cholesterol / equiv
Reasons for taking part in activity Social mixingWill meet others Develop co-operation skillsPlay with others / equiv. Fun / enjoymentInteracting with others and enjoys the sport Improved confidenceImproved physical shape increases self image / being good at something / make friends Relives stress / tensionTakes mind off other things & opportunity to relax
Health, fitness and exercise performance Health is: a state of complete mental, physical and social well being, and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity Can be accomplished by: immunisation, balanced diet, exercise, social interaction.
Health, fitness and exercise performance Fitness is: The ability to meet the demands of the environment. E.G. how well you can cope with the demands of running a marathon or playing a full game of netball.
Health, fitness and exercise performance Performance is: how well a task is completed Exercise is: a form of physical activity done primarily to improve ones health and physical fitness.
Health, fitness and exercise performance Cardiovascular fitness is: the ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time It is concerned with the healthy working of the heart, blood and blood vessels. Helps us to lead an active lifestyle. Why? Allows us to perform/train for longer How to improve: running etc 60-80% MHR
Health, fitness and exercise performance Muscular strength is: The amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance Very important in sports requiring the exertion of great force e.g. weight lifting, sprinting, shot putt. How to improve – weight training/resistance training. Muscular endurance is: The ability to use voluntary muscles many times without getting tired Very important in sports requiring stamina such as; long distance running, triathlons or football. How to improve – circuit training
Health, fitness and exercise performance Flexibility is: The range of movement possible at a joint Very important in activities using stretching movements such as gymnastics. Also helps reduce risk of injury. How to improve – static, dynamic, PNF Body composition is: The percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle and bone Important as body composition may influence how well suited you are to a particular sport. E.g jockey benefits from being light/rugby player from being heavy.
Skill related fitness Agility is: the ability to change the position of the body quickly and to control the movement of the whole body Gymnastic floorwork and back somersaults are good examples of activities for which agility is a priority. Games players will use it to beat an opponent
Skill related fitness Balance is: the ability to retain the centre of mass (gravity) of the body above the base of support with reference to static – stationary – or dynamic changing conditions of movement, shape and orientation E.g handstand (static), dribbling in football (dynamic balance)
Skill related fitness Co-ordination is: the ability to use two or more body parts together Different sports require different types of co-ordination e.g.racket sports require good hand – eye co- ordination Foot – eye co-ordination will be required when striking a ball in a football match.
Skill related fitness Power is: the ability to do strength performances quickly. Power = Strength x Speed Throwers need to be powerful but strength alone is not enough they need speed in their throwing action to generate power. A 100m sprinter will also require power to get out of the blocks quickly.
Skill related fitness Reaction Time is: The time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement E.g. reacting to the starters gun in the 100m or to a shuttle which has been smashed into your half of the court.
Skill related fitness Speed is: the differential rate an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a short period of time Speed is an essential ingredient in most sports E.g. leg speed for a 100m sprinter or speed of limbs and thought for a boxer.
Diet, Health and Hygiene 7 requirements of a healthy diet Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Vitamins Minerals Water Fibre
Diet, Health and Hygiene Carbohydrates Maintain our bodies energy stores Two types of carbohydrates = starch + sugars Bread, pasta, rice and potatoes are good sources of starches. It is carbohydrates which provide use with most of our energy when taking part in sport Endurance athletes will need to consume large amounts of carbohydrates in order to keep their energy levels high
Diet, Health and Hygiene Protein Protein is essential for the growth of muscle and the repair of damaged tissue Foods rich in protein include, poultry, fish, milk, cheese, eggs, lentils and beans. Weight lifters, sprinters and other sportsmen and women requiring large muscle mass will need high protein diets
Diet, Health and Hygiene Fats Fat is important because it provides energy and helps other things work such as fat soluble vitamins. Energy provided from fats should be considerably less than from carbohydrates Foods rich in fats include, butter, cream, oils etc.
Diet, Health and Hygiene Vitamins We only require vitamins in small quantities Important for: good vision, good skin, red blood cell formation, healing, healthy bones + teeth. Sources of vitamins include: Vitamin A – milk, cheese, carrots Vitamin B – whole grains and nuts Vitamin C – Found in fruits
Diet, Health and Hygiene Minerals Are used by our bodies for a variety of functions. Calcium: formation and maintenance of bone and teeth (milk, cheese and cereals) Iron: Important for bloods ability to carry oxygen (iron is found in a range of foods most easily absorbed is in meat)
Diet, Health and Hygiene Water Transports, nutrients, waste, hormones It is the main component of many cells Helps regulate body temperature Boxers and marathon runners need liquid during their exertion in order to offset dehydration
Diet, Health and Hygiene Fibre It is vital in the functioning of the digestive system Good sources of fibre include, wholegrain breads and cereals, oats, fruits and vegetables
Diet, Health and Hygiene Overweight - having weight in excess of normal. Not harmful unless accompanied by overfatness Overfat Overfat – having too much body composition as fat Obese –describes people who are very overfat
Diet, Health and Hygiene A persons diet will often be affected by the sport for which they are training. I.e. a marathon runner or decathlete will have to consume large amounts of carbohydrates in order to maintain energy levels A weight lifter or heavy-weight boxer will need a diet containing large amounts of protein to maintain and build muscle mass. Whilst a Jockey may need to monitor his diet closely to avoid putting on weight.
Diet, Health and Hygiene Under eating will result in a loss of body weight and may have a negative effect on performance as the athlete may have low energy levels, or lack of muscle mass Overeating will increase body weight and may make you less agile, flexible and reduced endurance
Diet, Health and Hygiene Somatotypes (body build/physique) Measurements taken from height, weight, bone size, muscle girth and fat Endomorph Mesomorph Ectomorph Certain body types are particularly suited to different sports!
Diet, Health and Hygiene Endomorph Characteristics: Fatness, round body shape, large build. Effect on sport: often not suited to endurance events, most commonly found in events requiring large body mass and strength, such as sumo.
Diet, Health and Hygiene Mesomorph Characteristics: muscular, broad shoulders, triangular body shape Effect on sport: Most sportsmen are mesomrophs as most sports require strength and power. Strongmen and sprinters are good examples.
Diet, Health and Hygiene Ectomorph Characteristics: Thin, lean, low body fat levels Effect on sport: often found competing in endurance events such as the marathon and sports requiring a light body such as jockey
Diet, Health and Hygiene Smoking – Damages heart and lungs and raises blood pressure, increased risk of cancer, heart disease Reduces bodies ability to carry oxygen so performers suffer from fatigue and loss of breath more easily. Alcohol – Can cause damage to the liver and brain cells and increase likelihood of dehydration It may affect performance by impairing judgments, slowing reaction times and causing dehydration, it is commonly used as a sedative in sports such as archery to improve performance.
Principles of training (Sport) Specificity is: doing specific types of activity or exercise to build specific body parts E.g The training you do must be specific to the area you are trying to improve or the sport you play
Principles of training (sPort) Progression is: starting slowly and gradually increasing the amount of exercise done E.g. training more often or training at a higher level
Principles of training (spOrt) Overload : Fitness can only be improved through training more than you normally do
Principles of training (spoRt) Reversibility: any adaptation that takes place as a consequence of training will be reversed when you stop training If you stop training or train less effectively you will begin to lose fitness
Principles of training (sporT) Tedium or boredom
FITT Principle F – Frequency How many times per week you need to train in order to improve fitness. 3 times per week is normally recommended However, If you are training for a marathon or playing professional sport you will need to increase the frequency
FITT Principle I - Intensity How hard you train The intensity you train at must be sufficient to increase fitness. E.g cardio vascular fitness requires you to train at an intensity that will take your pulse into the target range
FITT Principle T – Time How long each session must be in order to be of any benefit and to achieve improvement It is recommended that in terms of cardio vascular fitness 20 minutes should be spend working in the target range. Elite performers will obviously train for much longer periods
FITT Principle T – Type What sort of training you will do For most people this could be a wide variety of activities to take them into the training zone e.g. swimming, cycling, jogging Elite performers will do activities specific to their sports or events.
Methods of Training Interval training Periods of work followed by periods of rest E.g. run for 60 secs rest for 30 secs Used in many different sports (particularly team games) Advantages to sport: replicates activity, takes place over short bursts, includes a rest period for recovery, includes repetitions of high quality
Methods of Training Continuous training Continuous training without rest periods Particularly useful for improving cardiovascular fitness Commonly used by distance athletes Advantages to sport: cheap, work individually or in a group, improves aerobic fitness, can be adapted to suit the individual.
Methods of Training Fartlek Training Speedplay a combination of fast and slow running. You may sprint for 200m then jog 200m then walk 200m and repeat Advantages include: can be done on a variety of terrain, can be flexible, useful for sports requiring changes of speed e.g. 1500m
Methods of Training Cross training Is a mixture of activities adapted to suit an individuals needs. E.g. one day swimming, one day cycling, one day running. Might not be suitable for elite athletes but is a good way of maintaining general fitness. Advantages include: varied certain muscle groups can be rested, training can be adapted to weather conditions
Methods of Training Circuit training Involves a number of exercises set out at a station so you avoid working the same muscle groups consecutively. Improves muscular endurance, cardio vascular fitness and circulo-respiratory fitness. Advantages: offers good all round fitness, cheap, people of all levels can work at their own pace, both aerobic and anaerobic, varied, works a number of different areas.
Methods of Training Weight Training Weight Training is a form of training that uses progressive resistance, either in the form of actual weight lifted or in terms of the number of times the weight is lifted. Weight training is used for: Increase muscular strength Increase muscular endurance Increase speed Develop muscle bulk or size Rehabilitate after illness or injury
Methods of Training Personal Exercise Program (PEP) A personal exercise program is a training plan designed to improve a persons health, fitness and performance and is made to suit their individual needs PEP must use principle of training e.g. overload, progression specificity and the FITT principle
Methods of Training Individual needs It is important the training program is planned around the individual One person may like swimming but another may not be able to swim So activities must be suitable A midfielder in football will require a different training program to a defender or a goal keeper because their needs are different
Methods of Training Training sessions include: A warm up – to prepare the body and mind - Pulse raiser, stretching and activity related work e.g. sprints/shooting Main activity – practice skills, work on fitness etc Cool down – Bring HR back to normal by gentle jogs and stretches
Methods of Training Immediate effects of exercise Increased HR Increased breathing Increased body temperature Sweating Muscle fatigue / tiredness
Methods of Training Effects of regular training and exercise Increased stroke volume and cardiac output (so heart pumps more blood per beat) Quicker recovery rate Lower resting HR More efficient CV system Increase number of capillaries
Methods of Training Long term benefits of exercise Lower blood pressure Reduced risk of coronary heart disease You can work harder for longer
Methods of Training Target Zone Used as a guide to measure intensity of exercise, and can be worked out in the following way: Max HR = 220 – age Lower end of target zone will be 60% of max HR Top end of target zone will be 80% of max HR
Methods of Training E.g. 220 – 20 = 200 bpm (max HR) Low end target zone is 60% of 200 bpm = 120 bpm Top end target zone is 80% of 200 bpm = 160 bpm Therefore the target zone is 120 – 160 bpm
Aerobic (with air) activity Any sustained activity requiring increased breathing and oxygen consumption Aerobic activities normally last for a minute or more Increases cardio - vascular fitness and efficiency of respiratory system E.g. long distance running Anaerobic (without air) activity Anaerobic activities are high intensity activities over a short period of time They only last for 40 second or so, even the fittest athletes cannot work at this intensity for longer Examples include 100m sprint Methods of Training
The Circulatory system Right ventricle Left ventricle Septum Tricuspid valve Bicuspid valve Right atrium Semilunar valves Vena cavae Aorta Pulmonary artery Pulmonary veins Left atrium Cardiac muscle
The Circulatory system To the lungsTo the body From the lungs left side The left side pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body for use. right side The right side pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen. From the body
The Circulatory system Blood flows around the body in a figure of eight circuit, passing through the heart twice on each circuit. Hence the name the Double Pump System. There are 2 separate loops to the circuit: The top loop – carries blood from the heart to the lungs and back. The bottom loop – carries blood from the heart to all over the body and back. (A) (V) Heart Body Lungs
The Circulatory system Heart rate is: The number of times the heart beats each minute During exercise your HR will increase With continued training your resting HR will be lower as your heart is stronger and more efficient Stroke volume is: the volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction At rest stroke volume may be 85ml, but when exercising it will increase up to 130ml
The Circulatory system Cardiac output is: the amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute Cardiac output is governed by the HR and stroke volume Cardiac output = stroke volume x HR When you train your cardiac output will increase because your heart is be bigger, stronger and more efficient
The Circulatory system There are three main types of blood vessels Arteries Veins Capillaries
The Circulatory system ArteriesVeinsCapillaries Thick wallsMuch thinner walls than arteries Microscopic vessels Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart Carry deoxygenated blood to the heart They link the arteries with the veins More elastic than veinsLess elastic than arteriesAt one end they carry arterial blood which transfers oxygen and nutrients to the muscles Cope with higher blood pressure Carry blood at lower pressures The channel the blood passes through (lumen) widens to cope with increased blood flow during exercise They contain many valves to stop blood flowing backwards, as venous blood is often flowing upwards against gravity At the other end, they pick up waste and carry venous blood into the veins as they pass through the system
The Circulatory system Blood structure: Plasma It is the liquid part of the blood Its functions include transporting: Glucose from the small intestine to the cells for use in energy production. Transporting carbon dioxide away from cells to the lungs for removal from the body. Other waste products away from cells for removal from the body, e.g. urea and heat when the body is hot.
The Circulatory system White blood cells These have a nucleus (control centre) and vary in size and shape Function includes: protecting the body from disease by Engulfing any invading microbes, defending the body from disease. Producing antibodies which help the body attack disease.
The Circulatory system Platelets These are tiny pieces of cell which have no nucleus Their main function is to: Clump together when blood vessels are damaged and help to clog a meshwork of fibres which create a clot, to help stop bleeding.
The Circulatory system Red blood cells These have no nucleus and are very flexible so they can pass through the extremely tiny capillaries of the body. Their main role is to: Collect and carry oxygen to all the cells of the body so they can create energy. In order to do this, red blood cells contain Haemoglobin, which combines with oxygen to become Oxyhaemoglobin.
The Respiratory System Trachea (wind pipe) Alveoli Bronchioles Intercostal muscles Ribs Bronchus Lung Diaphragm
The Respiratory System Inspiration The intercostal muscles contract pulling the rib cage up and out Diaphragm contracts causing it to flatten Chest cavity gets larger causing pressure in the lungs to fall Air moves into the lungs from the higher outside pressure Air flowing in
The Respiratory System Expiration The intercostal muscles relax and so the rib cage returns to normal The diaphragm relaxes pushing it up The chest cavity gets smaller so the pressure in the lungs increases Air flows out of the lungs During periods of exercise expiration becomes an active process involving the forced expulsion of air Air flowing outward
The Respiratory System Alveoli Are tiny structures were diffusion of o2 and co2 takes place Surrounded by capillaries Capillaries have thin walls as well to allow exchange of o2 and co2 The more training you do the more alveoli become available for gaseous exchange Thin wall Capillaries Red blood cells
The Respiratory System Gaseous exchange 1) Alveoli in close contact with blood capillaries 2) O2 in alveoli is diffused into blood capillaries 3) Whilst the o2 is taken co2 is given out to the alveoli and breathed out 4) O2 is carried via circulatory system around the body in the red blood cells before being deposited in living cells 5) O2 is combined with glucose in the cell to produce energy along with waste products of co2 and water 6) The process then begins again when the deoxygenated blood returns to the lungs 7) During exercise there is increased demand for energy and therefore o2, there is also more co2 produced during exercise which must be removed
The Respiratory System Inhaled air into the Inhaled air into the lungs (%) Exhale air out of the lungs (%) Oxygen 16%Nitrogen 79%Carbon Dioxide 4.0%Water vapour 1%Oxygen %Nitrogen 79%Carbon Dioxide 0.04%Water vapour 0.01%
The Respiratory System Tidal volume The volume of air you breath in and out in one breath Tidal volume increases during exercise Vital capacity the maximum amount of air you can breathe out after breathing in as much air as possible
The Respiratory System Oxygen debt the amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above that which would have ordinarily been consumed in the same time at rest (this results in a shortfall in the oxygen available)
Bones Bone Growth Bone grows from Cartilage in the body, from when we are born. It hardens with Calcium and other minerals, to form bone, called Ossification. Bone growth begins at the centre of the bone. Growth continues at the end of bones, but cartilage remains at the end of bones.
Bones Composition of bone Epiphsis: End of a long bone. Diaphysis: The Shaft of a long bone. Cartilage: A dense, elastic, connective tissue that cushions and connects many bones in the skeleton. Periosteum: Tough membrane which surrounds bone. Calcium: A mineral vital for healthy bones, found in dairy products, eg milk, cheese, yogurt etc…
Functions of skeleton Shape – without it we would be a pile of jelly. Support – Allows us to hold positions, standing up. Movement – Allows activity. Blood Production – Marrows within the bone produces all the vital ingredients of blood. Protection – Protects the vital organs, eg, brain, hearts, lung etc..
Bones Classification of bones 1.Long – Lever bones. Eg Humerus, femur, phalanges etc.. 2. Short – Small Levers. Eg Carpals, tarsals. 3. Flat – Protecting bones. Cranium, patella, ribs etc.. 4. Irregular – More protection. Eg Vertebrae, protect the spinal cord.
Bones Bone forms part of our lean body mass, which relate to weight and can affect performance (Diet and Nutrition Year 10). Bone determines size of body and length of limb, rugby players, gymnasts, high jumpers. Bones influences Body Composition and can therefore influence participation and performance in Sport.
Bones You must also be able to identify the major bones of the body Remember bone size will determine body size, weight and composition. This will in turn affect your performance in sport A good diet and regular exercise will help ensure healthy bone formation and long term health
Joints, tendons and ligaments A joint is: a place were two bones meet Joints allow use to move freely during everyday life and in sporting activities Without them our movement would be restricted E.g. joints in our fingers allow us to grip (a racket, ball etc)
Joints, tendons and ligaments You need to now the different types of joint Ball and socket (I.e shoulder0 Synovial joint (I.e. knee) You also need to know the role of cartilage, synovial fluid and membrane (give examples form the knee joint
Muscles and muscle action Muscle Position in the body Main Action In the middle of the body at the back, forming the bottom Pull the legs back at the hips. At the top of each leg at the back. Bend the legs at the knees At the bottom of each leg at the back. Also known as the calf muscles. Straighten the foot so you can stand on your toes. Hamstring Gluteals Gastrocnemius
Muscles and muscle action MusclePosition in the BodyMain Action Pull your arms down at the shoulders and back behind your back. Straighten the arms at the elbow. Hold and rotate the shoulders and also move the head back and sideways. At the back of the body, either side of the chest. At the top of each arm at the back. In the centre of the chest at the back of the body, spreading up. Trapezius Latissimus dorsi Triceps
Muscles and muscle action MusclePosition in the Body Main Action Deltoids Biceps Quadriceps In the upper part of the body, covering the shoulders. At the top of each arm at the front. At the top of each leg at the front. Raise the arms in all directions at the shoulders. Bend the arms at the elbows. Straighten the legs at the knees.
Muscles and muscle action MusclePosition in the body Main Action Pectorals In the upper part of the chest at the front. At the front of the body in the middle, just below the chest. Raise the arms up, sideways and across the chest at the shoulders. Pull in the abdomen and bend the spine so you can bend forward. Abdominals
Muscles and muscle action Muscle types Cardiac muscle cardiac muscle works without you thinking about it (there is no conscious control) It is only found in the walls of the heart Never tires and important for pumping blood around body during periods of activity
Muscles and muscle action Involuntary muscle Also works without you thinking about it Also known as smooth muscle Found in the walls of arteries, veins, stomach and intestines
Muscles and muscle action Voluntary muscles You have full control over voluntary muscles They are also know as striated or skeletal muscle. They are attached to bone and cause the skeleton to move. Examples include the triceps and hamstrings. They are the largest group of muscles in the body
Muscles and muscle action Antagonistic muscles Skeletal muscles work across a joint and are attached to the bones by strong cords known as tendons. They work in pairs, each contracting or relaxing in turn to create movement.
Muscles and muscle action Flexion (bending) of the arm The muscle doing the work (contracting) and creating the movement is called the agonist or prime mover. The muscle which is relaxing and letting the movement take place is called the antagonist. Agonist or Prime Mover (Biceps contract) Antagonist (Triceps relax)
Muscles and muscle action Fast twitch fibres Contraction Strength Muscle Fibre TypeFast Twitch Very Powerful EnduranceCan only work for short periods Energy ProductionAnaerobic Respiration Ideal for Sprinters For Who?
Slow twitch fibres Muscles and muscle action Slow Twitch Weaker Can work for long periods Aerobic Respiration Ideal for Marathon Runners Contraction Strength Muscle Fibre Type Endurance Energy Production For Who?
Prevention of injury In all sports were competition is part of the game, rules will be in place to protect players, officials and spectators from injury. How can we make activities safe? Protective clothing Appropriate footwear Balanced competition Weight categories Mixed or single sexed competition Age Groups
Balanced Competition Another way to make sport safe is to try to level the competition by grading competitors in various ways: Weight categories – Boxing and Karate. Mixed or single sex competitions – contact sports. Age groups – football etc. (but not all children of the same age are the same height or weight)
Sports Injuries Joint injuries
Sports injuries Soft tissue injuries Pulled muscle, strained muscle etc are all terms used to describe the same type of injury. The muscle tendons become torn from the bone. Symptoms include pain, unable to move the limb, tearing /pulling sound
The treatment for: JOINT INJURIES, TENNIS and GOLF ELBOW, MUSCLE/SOFT TISSUE INJURIES, DISLOCATIONS and TORN CARTILAGE is the R.I.C.E. principle.
Sports Injury R – REST I – ICE C – COMPRESSION E – ELEVATION
Sports Injury This is often caused by a severe impact to the head or when the body is starved of oxygen. The treatment for an unconsciousness is the DR ABC principle. Danger Response Airways Breathing Circulation
Posture It is important to keep our bodies balanced but we often stoop or sag. Over time this can lead to problems with posture resulting in back / neck pain and discomfort It can be caused by slouching in chairs, ill fitting shoes, poor muscle tone, flexibility and being overweight.
Sports Injuries How can we improve our posture? Strengthen muscles Increase flexibility Loose weight Sit upright Avoid slouching Wear well fitting shoes.