2Reasons for taking part in activity BenefitHow achievedWeight loss / improved body shape / look goodBurning off calories through increased level of workProvide a physical challengeMight not do anything physically normally, gives a chance to do so.Improved healthReduced blood pressure / cholesterol / equiv
3Reasons for taking part in activity Social mixingWill meet othersDevelop co-operation skillsPlay with others / equiv.Fun / enjoymentInteracting with others and enjoys the sportImproved confidenceImproved physical shape increases self image / being good at something / make friendsRelives stress / tensionTakes mind off other things & opportunity to relax
4Health, fitness and exercise performance Health is:“a state of complete mental, physical and social well being, and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity”Can be accomplished by: immunisation, balanced diet, exercise, social interaction.
5Health, fitness and exercise performance Fitness is:“The ability to meet the demands of the environment”.E.G. how well you can cope with the demands of running a marathon or playing a full game of netball.
6Health, fitness and exercise performance Performance is:“how well a task is completed”Exercise is:“a form of physical activity done primarily to improve ones health and physical fitness”.
7Health, fitness and exercise performance Cardiovascular fitness is:“the ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time”It is concerned with the healthy working of the heart, blood and blood vessels.Helps us to lead an active lifestyle.Why? Allows us to perform/train for longerHow to improve: running etc 60-80% MHR
8Health, fitness and exercise performance Muscular strength is:“The amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance”Very important in sports requiring the exertion of great force e.g. weight lifting, sprinting, shot putt.How to improve – weight training/resistance training.Muscular endurance is:“The ability to use voluntary muscles many times without getting tired”Very important in sports requiring stamina such as; long distance running, triathlons or football.How to improve – circuit training
9Health, fitness and exercise performance Flexibility is:“The range of movement possible at a joint”Very important in activities using stretching movements such as gymnastics. Also helps reduce risk of injury.How to improve – static, dynamic, PNFBody composition is:“The percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle and bone”Important as body composition may influence how well suited you are to a particular sport.E.g jockey benefits from being light/rugby player from being heavy.
10Skill related fitness Agility is: “the ability to change the position of the body quickly and to control the movement of the whole body”Gymnastic floorwork and back somersaults are good examples of activities for which agility is a priority.Games players will use it to beat an opponent
11Skill related fitness Balance is: “the ability to retain the centre of mass (gravity) of the body above the base of support with reference to static – stationary – or dynamic changing conditions of movement, shape and orientation”E.g handstand (static), dribbling in football (dynamic balance)
12Skill related fitness Co-ordination is: “the ability to use two or more body parts together”Different sports require different types of co-ordinatione.g.racket sports require good hand – eye co-ordinationFoot – eye co-ordination will be required when striking a ball in a football match.
13Skill related fitness Power is: “the ability to do strength performances quickly.Power = Strength x SpeedThrowers need to be powerful but strength alone is not enough they need speed in their throwing action to generate power. A 100m sprinter will also require power to get out of the blocks quickly.
14Skill related fitness Reaction Time is: “The time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement”E.g. reacting to the starters gun in the 100m or to a shuttle which has been smashed into your half of the court.
15Skill related fitness Speed is: “the differential rate an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a short period of time”Speed is an essential ingredient in most sportsE.g. leg speed for a 100m sprinter or speed of limbs and thought for a boxer.
16Diet, Health and Hygiene 7 requirements of a healthy dietCarbohydratesProteinsFatsVitaminsMineralsWaterFibre
17Diet, Health and Hygiene CarbohydratesMaintain our bodies energy storesTwo types of carbohydrates = starch + sugarsBread, pasta, rice and potatoes are good sources of starches.It is carbohydrates which provide use with most of our energy when taking part in sportEndurance athletes will need to consume large amounts of carbohydrates in order to keep their energy levels high
18Diet, Health and Hygiene ProteinProtein is essential for the growth of muscle and the repair of damaged tissueFoods rich in protein include, poultry, fish, milk, cheese, eggs, lentils and beans.Weight lifters, sprinters and other sportsmen and women requiring large muscle mass will need high protein diets
19Diet, Health and Hygiene FatsFat is important because it provides energy and helps other things work such as fat soluble vitamins.Energy provided from fats should be considerably less than from carbohydratesFoods rich in fats include, butter, cream, oils etc.
20Diet, Health and Hygiene VitaminsWe only require vitamins in small quantitiesImportant for: good vision, good skin, red blood cell formation, healing, healthy bones + teeth.Sources of vitamins include:Vitamin A – milk, cheese, carrotsVitamin B – whole grains and nutsVitamin C – Found in fruits
21Diet, Health and Hygiene MineralsAre used by our bodies for a variety of functions.Calcium: formation and maintenance of bone and teeth (milk, cheese and cereals)Iron: Important for bloods ability to carry oxygen (iron is found in a range of foods most easily absorbed is in meat)
22Diet, Health and Hygiene WaterTransports, nutrients, waste, hormonesIt is the main component of many cellsHelps regulate body temperatureBoxers and marathon runners need liquid during their exertion in order to offset dehydration
23Diet, Health and Hygiene FibreIt is vital in the functioning of the digestive systemGood sources of fibre include, wholegrain breads and cereals, oats, fruits and vegetables
24Diet, Health and Hygiene Overweight - having weight in excess of normal. Not harmful unless accompanied by overfatnessOverfat – having too much bodycomposition as fatObese –describes people who are very overfat
25Diet, Health and Hygiene A persons diet will often be affected by the sport for which they are training.I.e. a marathon runner or decathlete will have to consume large amounts of carbohydrates in order to maintain energy levelsA weight lifter or heavy-weight boxer will need a diet containing large amounts of protein to maintain and build muscle mass.Whilst a Jockey may need to monitor his diet closely to avoid putting on weight.
26Diet, Health and Hygiene Under eating will result in a loss of body weight and may have a negative effect on performance as the athlete may have low energy levels, or lack of muscle massOvereating will increase body weight and may make you less agile, flexible and reduced endurance
27Diet, Health and Hygiene Somatotypes (body build/physique)Measurements taken from height, weight, bone size, muscle girth and fatEndomorphMesomorphEctomorphCertain body types are particularly suited to different sports!
28Diet, Health and Hygiene EndomorphCharacteristics: Fatness, round body shape, large build.Effect on sport: often not suited to endurance events, most commonly found in events requiring large body mass and strength, such as sumo.
29Diet, Health and Hygiene MesomorphCharacteristics: muscular, broad shoulders, triangular body shapeEffect on sport: Most sportsmen are mesomrophs as most sports require strength and power. Strongmen and sprinters are good examples.
30Diet, Health and Hygiene EctomorphCharacteristics: Thin, lean, low body fat levelsEffect on sport: often found competing in endurance events such as the marathon and sports requiring a light body such as jockey
31Diet, Health and Hygiene Smoking – Damages heart and lungs and raises blood pressure, increased risk of cancer, heart diseaseReduces bodies ability to carry oxygen so performers suffer from fatigue and loss of breath more easily.Alcohol – Can cause damage to the liver and brain cells and increase likelihood of dehydrationIt may affect performance by impairing judgments, slowing reaction times and causing dehydration, it is commonly used as a sedative in sports such as archery to improve performance.
32Principles of training (Sport) Specificity is:“doing specific types of activity or exercise to build specific body parts”E.g The training you do must be specific to the area you are trying to improve or the sport you play
33Principles of training (sPort) Progression is:“starting slowly and gradually increasing the amount of exercise done”E.g. training more often or training at a higher level
34Principles of training (spOrt) Overload :“Fitness can only be improved through training more than you normally do”
35Principles of training (spoRt) Reversibility:“any adaptation that takes place as a consequence of training will be reversed when you stop training”If you stop training or train less effectively you will begin to lose fitness
36Principles of training (sporT) Tedium or boredom
37FITT Principle F – Frequency How many times per week you need to train in order to improve fitness.3 times per week is normally recommendedHowever, If you are training for a marathon or playing professional sport you will need to increase the frequency
38FITT Principle I - Intensity How hard you train The intensity you train at must be sufficient to increase fitness.E.g cardio vascular fitness requires you to train at an intensity that will take your pulse into the target range
39FITT PrincipleT – TimeHow long each session must be in order to be of any benefit and to achieve improvementIt is recommended that in terms of cardio vascular fitness 20 minutes should be spend working in the target range.Elite performers will obviously train for much longer periods
40FITT Principle T – Type What sort of training you will do For most people this could be a wide variety of activities to take them into the training zone e.g. swimming , cycling, joggingElite performers will do activities specific to their sports or events.
41Methods of Training Interval training Periods of work followed by periods of restE.g. run for 60 secs rest for 30 secsUsed in many different sports (particularly team games)Advantages to sport: replicates activity, takes place over short bursts, includes a rest period for recovery, includes repetitions of high quality
42Methods of Training Continuous training Continuous training without rest periodsParticularly useful for improving cardiovascular fitnessCommonly used by distance athletesAdvantages to sport: cheap, work individually or in a group, improves aerobic fitness, can be adapted to suit the individual.
43Methods of Training Fartlek Training ‘Speedplay’ a combination of fast and slow running.You may sprint for 200m then jog 200m then walk 200m and repeatAdvantages include: can be done on a variety of terrain, can be flexible, useful for sports requiring changes of speed e.g. 1500m
44Methods of Training Cross training Is a mixture of activities adapted to suit an individuals needs.E.g. one day swimming, one day cycling, one day running.Might not be suitable for elite athletes but is a good way of maintaining general fitness.Advantages include: varied certain muscle groups can be rested, training can be adapted to weather conditions
45Methods of Training Circuit training Involves a number of exercises set out at a ‘station’ so you avoid working the same muscle groups consecutively.Improves muscular endurance, cardio vascular fitness and circulo-respiratory fitness.Advantages: offers good all round fitness, cheap, people of all levels can work at their own pace, both aerobic and anaerobic, varied, works a number of different areas.
46Methods of Training Weight Training Weight Training is a form of training that uses progressive resistance, either in the form of actual weight lifted or in terms of the number of times the weight is lifted.Weight training is used for:Increase muscular strengthIncrease muscular enduranceIncrease speedDevelop muscle bulk or sizeRehabilitate after illness or injury
47Methods of Training Personal Exercise Program (PEP) A personal exercise program is a training plan designed to improve a persons health, fitness and performance and is made to suit their individual needsPEP must use principle of training e.g. overload, progression specificity and the FITT principle
48Methods of Training Individual needs It is important the training program is planned around the individualOne person may like swimming but another may not be able to swimSo activities must be suitableA midfielder in football will require a different training program to a defender or a goal keeper because their needs are different
49Methods of Training Training sessions include: A warm up – to prepare the body and mind - Pulse raiser, stretching and activity related work e.g. sprints/shootingMain activity – practice skills, work on fitness etcCool down – Bring HR back to normal by gentle jogs and stretches
50Methods of Training Immediate effects of exercise Increased HR Increased breathingIncreased body temperatureSweatingMuscle fatigue / tiredness
51Methods of Training Effects of regular training and exercise Increased stroke volume and cardiac output (so heart pumps more blood per beat)Quicker recovery rateLower resting HRMore efficient CV systemIncrease number of capillaries
52Methods of Training Long term benefits of exercise Lower blood pressureReduced risk of coronary heart diseaseYou can work harder for longer
53Methods of Training Target Zone Used as a guide to measure intensity of exercise, and can be worked out in the following way:Max HR = 220 – ageLower end of target zone will be 60% of max HRTop end of target zone will be 80% of max HR
54Methods of Training E.g. 220 – 20 = 200 bpm (max HR) Low end target zone is 60% of 200 bpm = 120 bpmTop end target zone is 80% of 200 bpm = 160 bpmTherefore the target zone is 120 – 160 bpm
55Methods of Training Aerobic (with air) activity Any sustained activity requiring increased breathing and oxygen consumptionAerobic activities normally last for a minute or moreIncreases cardio - vascular fitness and efficiency of respiratory systemE.g. long distance runningAnaerobic (without air) activityAnaerobic activities are high intensity activities over a short period of timeThey only last for 40 second or so, even the fittest athletes cannot work at this intensity for longerExamples include 100m sprint
57The Circulatory system To the lungsTo the bodyFrom the bodyFrom the lungsThe left sidepumps oxygenatedblood to the rest ofthe body for use.The right side pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen.
58The Circulatory system LungsBlood flows around the body in a ‘figure of eight’ circuit, passing through the heart twice on each circuit. Hence the name the Double Pump System.There are 2 separate ‘loops’ to the circuit:The top loop – carries blood from the heart to the lungs and back.The bottom loop – carries blood from the heart to all over the body and back.(A)(A)(V)(V)HeartBody
59The Circulatory system Heart rate is:“The number of times the heart beats each minute”During exercise your HR will increaseWith continued training your resting HR will be lower as your heart is stronger and more efficientStroke volume is:“the volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction”At rest stroke volume may be 85ml, but when exercising it will increase up to 130ml
60The Circulatory system Cardiac output is:“the amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute”Cardiac output is governed by the HR and stroke volumeCardiac output = stroke volume x HRWhen you train your cardiac output will increase because your heart is be bigger, stronger and more efficient
61The Circulatory system There are three main types of blood vesselsArteriesVeinsCapillaries
62The Circulatory system ArteriesVeinsCapillariesThick wallsMuch thinner walls than arteriesMicroscopic vesselsCarry oxygenated blood away from the heartCarry deoxygenated blood to the heartThey link the arteries with the veinsMore elastic than veinsLess elastic than arteriesAt one end they carry arterial blood which transfers oxygen and nutrients to the musclesCope with higher blood pressureCarry blood at lower pressuresThe channel the blood passes through (lumen) widens to cope with increased blood flow during exerciseThey contain many valves to stop blood flowing backwards, as venous blood is often flowing upwards against gravityAt the other end, they pick up waste and carry venous blood into the veins as they pass through the system
63The Circulatory system Blood structure: PlasmaIt is the liquid part of the bloodIts functions include transporting:Transporting carbon dioxide away from cells to the lungs for removal from the body.Glucose from the small intestine to the cells for use in energy production.Other waste products away from cells for removal from the body, e.g. urea and heat when the body is hot.
64The Circulatory system White blood cellsThese have a nucleus (control centre) and vary in size and shapeFunction includes: protecting the body from disease byEngulfing any invading microbes, defending the body from disease.Producing antibodies which help the body attack disease.
65The Circulatory system PlateletsThese are tiny pieces of cell which have no nucleusTheir main function is to:Clump together when blood vessels are damaged and help to clog a ‘meshwork’ of fibres which create a clot, to help stop bleeding.
66The Circulatory system Red blood cellsThese have no nucleus and are very flexible so they can pass through the extremely tiny capillaries of the body.Their main role is to:In order to do this, red blood cells contain Haemoglobin, which combines with oxygen to become Oxyhaemoglobin.Collect and carry oxygen to all the cells of the body so they can create energy.
67The Respiratory System Trachea(wind pipe)RibsBronchusAlveoliLungBronchiolesDiaphragmIntercostalmuscles
68The Respiratory System InspirationThe intercostal muscles contract pulling the rib cage up and outDiaphragm contracts causing it to flattenChest cavity gets larger causing pressure in the lungs to fallAir moves into the lungs from the higher outside pressureAir flowing in
69The Respiratory System ExpirationThe intercostal muscles relax and so the rib cage returns to normalThe diaphragm relaxes pushing it upThe chest cavity gets smaller so the pressure in the lungs increasesAir flows out of the lungsDuring periods of exercise expiration becomes an active process involving the forced expulsion of airAir flowing outward
70The Respiratory System AlveoliAre tiny structures were diffusion of o2 and co2 takes placeSurrounded by capillariesCapillaries have thin walls as well to allow exchange of o2 and co2The more training you do the more alveoli become available for gaseous exchangeThin wallRed blood cellsCapillaries
71The Respiratory System Gaseous exchangeAlveoli in close contact with blood capillariesO2 in alveoli is diffused into blood capillariesWhilst the o2 is taken co2 is given out to the alveoli and breathed outO2 is carried via circulatory system around the body in the red blood cells before being deposited in living cellsO2 is combined with glucose in the cell to produce energy along with waste products of co2 and waterThe process then begins again when the deoxygenated blood returns to the lungsDuring exercise there is increased demand for energy and therefore o2, there is also more co2 produced during exercise which must be removed
72The Respiratory System Inhaled air into thelungs (%)Exhale air out of thelungs (%)Oxygen %Oxygen 16%Nitrogen 79%Nitrogen 79%Carbon Dioxide 0.04%Carbon Dioxide 4.0%Water vapour 0.01%Water vapour 1%
73The Respiratory System Tidal volume“The volume of air you breath in and out in one breath”Tidal volume increases during exerciseVital capacity“the maximum amount of air you can breathe out after breathing in as much air as possible”
74The Respiratory System Oxygen debt“the amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above that which would have ordinarily been consumed in the same time at rest (this results in a shortfall in the oxygen available)
75BonesBone GrowthBone grows from Cartilage in the body, from when we are born.It hardens with Calcium and other minerals, to form bone, called Ossification.Bone growth begins at the centre of the bone.Growth continues at the end of bones, but cartilage remains at the end of bones.
76Bones Composition of bone Epiphsis: End of a long bone. Diaphysis: The Shaft of a long bone.Cartilage: A dense, elastic, connective tissue that cushions and connects many bones in the skeleton.Periosteum: Tough membrane which surrounds bone.Calcium: A mineral vital for healthy bones, found in dairy products, eg milk, cheese, yogurt etc…
78Bones Functions of skeleton Shape – without it we would be a pile of jelly.Support – Allows us to hold positions, standing up.Movement – Allows activity.Blood Production – Marrows within the bone produces all the vital ingredients of blood.Protection – Protects the vital organs, eg, brain, hearts, lung etc..
79Bones Classification of bones Long – Lever bones. Eg Humerus, femur, phalanges etc..2. Short – Small Levers.Eg Carpals, tarsals.3. Flat – Protecting bones.Cranium, patella, ribs etc..4. Irregular – More protection.Eg Vertebrae, protect the spinal cord.
80BonesBone forms part of our lean body mass, which relate to weight and can affect performance (Diet and Nutrition Year 10).Bone determines size of body and length of limb, rugby players, gymnasts, high jumpers.Bones influences Body Composition and can therefore influence participation and performance in Sport.
81Bones You must also be able to identify the major bones of the body Remember bone size will determine body size, weight and composition.This will in turn affect your performance in sportA good diet and regular exercise will help ensure healthy bone formation and long term health
82Joints, tendons and ligaments A joint is:“a place were two bones meet”Joints allow use to move freely during everyday life and in sporting activitiesWithout them our movement would be restrictedE.g. joints in our fingers allow us to grip (a racket, ball etc)
83Joints, tendons and ligaments You need to now the different types of jointBall and socket (I.e shoulder0Synovial joint (I.e. knee)You also need to know the role of cartilage, synovial fluid and membrane (give examples form the knee joint
84Joints, tendons and ligaments Joint movementsFlexionExtensionAdductionAbductionRotation
85Muscles and muscle action Position in the bodyMain ActionIn the middle of the body at the back, forming the bottomPull the legs back at the hips.At the top of each leg at the back.Bend the legs at the kneesAt the bottom of each leg at the back. Also known as the calf muscles.Straighten the foot so you can stand on your toes.GlutealsHamstringGastrocnemius
86Muscles and muscle action Position in the BodyMain ActionHold and rotate the shoulders and also move the head back and sideways.TrapeziusIn the centre of the chest at the back of the body, spreading up.Latissimus dorsiPull your arms down at the shoulders and back behind your back.At the back of the body, either side of the chest.TricepsAt the top of each arm at the back.Straighten the arms at the elbow.
87Muscles and muscle action Position in the BodyMain ActionDeltoidsIn the upper part of the body, covering the shoulders.Raise the arms in all directions at the shoulders.BicepsAt the top of each arm at the front.Bend the arms at the elbows.At the top of each leg at the front.QuadricepsStraighten the legs at the knees.
88Muscles and muscle action Position in the bodyMain ActionPectoralsIn the upper part of the chest at the front.Raise the arms up, sideways and across the chest at the shoulders.AbdominalsAt the front of the body in the middle, just below the chest.Pull in the abdomen and bend the spine so you can bend forward.
89Muscles and muscle action Muscle typesCardiac musclecardiac muscle works without you thinking about it (there is no conscious control)It is only found in the walls of the heartNever tires and important for pumping blood around body during periods of activity
90Muscles and muscle action Involuntary muscleAlso works without you thinking about itAlso known as smooth muscleFound in the walls of arteries, veins, stomach and intestines
91Muscles and muscle action Voluntary musclesYou have full control over voluntary musclesThey are also know as striated or skeletal muscle.They are attached to bone and cause the skeleton to move.Examples include the triceps and hamstrings.They are the largest group of muscles in the body
92Muscles and muscle action Antagonistic musclesSkeletal muscles work across a joint and are attached to the bones by strong cords known as tendons.They work in pairs, each contracting or relaxing in turn to create movement.
93Muscles and muscle action Flexion (bending) of the armThe muscle doing the work (contracting) and creating the movement is called the agonist or prime mover.The muscle which is relaxing and letting the movement take place is called the antagonist.Antagonist(Triceps relax)Agonist or Prime Mover(Biceps contract)
94Muscles and muscle action Fast twitch fibresMuscle Fibre TypeFast TwitchContraction StrengthVery PowerfulEnergy ProductionAnaerobic RespirationEnduranceCan only work for short periodsFor Who?Ideal for Sprinters
95Muscles and muscle action Slow twitch fibresMuscle Fibre TypeSlow TwitchContraction StrengthWeakerEnergy ProductionAerobic RespirationEnduranceCan work for long periodsFor Who?Ideal for Marathon Runners
96Prevention of injuryIn all sports were competition is part of the game, rules will be in place to protect players, officials and spectators from injury.How can we make activities safe?Protective clothingAppropriate footwearBalanced competitionWeight categoriesMixed or single sexed competitionAge Groups
97Balanced CompetitionAnother way to make sport safe is to try to level the competition by grading competitors in various ways:Weight categories – Boxing and Karate.Mixed or single sex competitions – contact sports.Age groups – football etc. (but not all children of the same age are the same height or weight)
101Sports injuries Soft tissue injuries Pulled muscle, strained muscle etc are all terms used to describe the same type of injury.The muscle tendons become torn from the bone.Symptoms include pain, unable to move the limb, tearing /pulling sound
106Sports InjuryThis is often caused by a severe impact to the head or when the body is starved of oxygen.The treatment for an unconsciousness is the DR ABC principle.DangerResponseAirwaysBreathingCirculation
108Sports InjuryPostureIt is important to keep our bodies balanced but we often stoop or sag.Over time this can lead to problems with posture resulting in back / neck pain and discomfortIt can be caused by slouching in chairs, ill fitting shoes, poor muscle tone, flexibility and being overweight.
109Sports Injuries How can we improve our posture? Strengthen muscles Increase flexibilityLoose weightSit uprightAvoid slouchingWear well fitting shoes.