Presentation on theme: "Health, exercise and fitness Learning objectives To define health and fitness and associated problems. To understand the effects of lifestyle choice on."— Presentation transcript:
Health, exercise and fitness Learning objectives To define health and fitness and associated problems. To understand the effects of lifestyle choice on health and fitness. To describe the components of health related fitness. To describe the components of skill related fitness.
Fitness is defined as… Being fit means being physically able to cope with the demands of everyday life. These demands will vary from person to person, depending on things like lifestyle and age. …the ability to perform daily tasks without undue fatigue. Defining fitness
Health is defined as… This means an elite athlete could be seen as unhealthy if they suffer from depression. High levels of stress can also cause poor health. …a state of complete mental, physical and social well-being. And not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. ARE YOU HEALTHY? Defining health
Fitness Components Health Related components of fitness: Stamina (Cardio-respiratory endurance) Stamina can also be referred to as cardio-respiratory endurance or VO2 max. 3 factors will effect stamina: Effectiveness of an individual to inspire and expire Effectiveness of oxygen transport to the muscles How well the oxygen is used. Definition: …the ability to take in and use oxygen.
Strength There are 3 different types of strength that are used in sport. Definition: …the ability to exert a force against a resistance. 1. Maximum Strength: This is the maximum force a muscle is capable of producing in a single contraction. High testosterone levels in males means that men usually have a greater maximum strength. Fast glycolytic twitch fibres are responsible for strength production.
2. Power (Elastic Strength) This is speed x strength. It is the ability to overcome a resistance with a high speed of contraction. Power is important in explosive events that involve throwing and sprinting. A high percentage of fast glycolytic fibres are used to produce power.
3. Muscular (strength) endurance This is the ability of the muscles to repeatedly contract while withstanding fatigue. It is essential for long distance events like rowing, swimming and cycling where the same muscle action is continually required. This type of strength involves a high proportion of type 1 (slow oxidative) and type 2a (fast oxidative) glycolytic fibres.
Flexibility Flexibility is determined by the joint structure and the muscle elasticity. Good flexibility reduces the chances of injury and helps to generate faster muscle contractions. Definition: … the range of movement around a joint, or the resistance of a joint to movement. There are 2 main type of flexibility. What are they?
Static flexibility: The range of movement seen as a joint. E.g. the splits Dynamic flexibility: This is the resistance of a joint to movement.
What factors will determine an individuals flexibility? Task: 2 minutes to discuss the following question.
Flexibility is determined by: The elasticity of ligaments and tendons. The amount of stretch allowed by the working muscles. The type of joint being used in the action. i.e. The ball and socket joint allows movement in many different planes. The hinge joint only allows flexion/extension. The structure of the joint. The hip and shoulder have a deeper cavity and tighter ligament surrounding it. The temperature around the joint and in the surrounding muscles. Training Age and Gender
Speed Examples in SPORT? Definition: … how fast a person can move over a set distance, or how quickly a body part can be put in motion. 100m sprinter OR it could be how fast a badminton player can move their racket to cover a drop shot
Muscle fibre type plays an important role in speed of movement. This is largely determined by genetics but training can increase the number of fast twitch fibres.
Fitness Components Skill Related components of fitness: Agility Examples in sport? Definition: …the ability to move and position the body quickly while under control. Goalkeeper, netball catch and pass & basketball dribbling.
Balance Balance can be STATIC or DYNAMIC. Definition: … the ability to keep the centre of gravity over the base of support. Can you think of any other examples?
Static – for example, handstand Dynamic – for example, keeping your balance on a board i.e. skateboard, surfing Balance To balance your body, the centre of gravity needs to be in line with the base of support. The lower the your centre of gravity = increased balanced.
Reaction time “The time between the presentation of a stimulus and the initiation of a movement response” A stimulus could be anything from a starting gun to a sudden side-step by an opponent. Sporting examples? A table tennis player reacting to a serve. Reaction time Can you think of any other examples?
Coordination... is the ability of the motor and nervous systems to completed motor tasks accurately E.G. an effective tennis stroke requires coordinating footwork and arm action. Coordination Can you think of any other examples?
Plenary 1. Define health and fitness and associated problems. 2. Describe the components of health related fitness and give sporting examples. 3. Describe the components of skill related fitness and give sporting examples. Can you do the following?..