2Methods of Training 1.1.4 Interval training Periods of work followed by periods of restE.g. run for 60 secs rest for 30 secsUsed in many different sports (particularly team games)Advantages to sport: replicates activity, takes place over short bursts, includes a rest period for recovery, includes repetitions of high quality
3Methods of Training Continuous training Continuous training without rest periodsParticularly useful for improving cardiovascular fitnessCommonly used by distance athletesAdvantages to sport: cheap, work individually or in a group, improves aerobic fitness, can be adapted to suit the individual.
4Methods of Training Fartlek Training ‘Speedplay’ a combination of fast and slow running.You may sprint for 200m then jog 200m then walk 200m and repeatAdvantages include: can be done on a variety of terrain, can be flexible, useful for sports requiring changes of speed e.g. 1500m
5Methods of Training Cross training Is a mixture of activities adapted to suit an individuals needs.E.g. one day swimming, one day cycling, one day running.Might not be suitable for elite athletes but is a good way of maintaining general fitness.Advantages include: varied certain muscle groups can be rested, training can be adapted to weather conditions
6Methods of Training Circuit training Involves a number of exercises set out at a ‘station’ so you avoid working the same muscle groups consecutively.Improves muscular endurance, cardio vascular fitness and circulo-respiratory fitness.Advantages: offers good all round fitness, cheap, people of all levels can work at their own pace, both aerobic and anaerobic, varied, works a number of different areas.
7Methods of Training Weight Training Weight Training is a form of training that uses progressive resistance, either in the form of actual weight lifted or in terms of the number of times the weight is lifted.Weight training is used for:Increase muscular strengthIncrease muscular enduranceIncrease speedDevelop muscle bulk or sizeRehabilitate after illness or injury
8Methods of Training Individual needs It is important the training program is planned around the individualOne person may like swimming but another may not be able to swimSo activities must be suitableA midfielder in football will require a different training program to a defender or a goal keeper because their needs are different
9Methods of Training Training sessions include: A warm up – to prepare the body and mind - Pulse raiser, stretching and activity related work e.g. sprints/shootingMain activity – practice skills, work on fitness etcCool down – Bring HR back to normal by gentle jogs and stretches
10Methods of Training Immediate effects of exercise Increased HR Increased breathingIncreased body temperatureSweatingMuscle fatigue / tiredness
11Methods of Training Effects of regular training and exercise Increased stroke volume and cardiac output (so heart pumps more blood per beat)Quicker recovery rateLower resting HRMore efficient CV systemIncrease number of capillaries
12Methods of Training Long term benefits of exercise Lower blood pressureReduced risk of coronary heart diseaseYou can work harder for longer
13Methods of Training Target Zone Used as a guide to measure intensity of exercise, and can be worked out in the following way:Max HR = 220 – ageLower end of target zone will be 60% of max HRTop end of target zone will be 80% of max HR
14Methods of Training E.g. 220 – 20 = 200 bpm (max HR) Low end target zone is 60% of 200 bpm = 120 bpmTop end target zone is 80% of 200 bpm = 160 bpmTherefore the target zone is 120 – 160 bpm
15Methods of Training Aerobic (with air) activity Any sustained activity requiring increased breathing and oxygen consumptionAerobic activities normally last for a minute or moreIncreases cardio - vascular fitness and efficiency of respiratory systemE.g. long distance runningAnaerobic (without air) activityAnaerobic activities are high intensity activities over a short period of timeThey only last for 40 second or so, even the fittest athletes cannot work at this intensity for longerExamples include 100m sprint
16Diet, Health and Hygiene 1.1.5 7 requirements of a healthy dietMACRO NUTRIENTSCarbohydratesProteinsFatsMICRO NUTRIENTSVitaminsMineralsWaterFibreGive 3 examples of each
17Diet, Health and Hygiene CarbohydratesMaintain our bodies energy storesTwo types of carbohydrates = complex starch + simple sugarsBread, pasta, rice and potatoes are good sources of starches.It is carbohydrates which provide use with most of our energy when taking part in sportEndurance athletes will need to consume large amounts of carbohydrates in order to keep their energy levels high
18Diet, Health and Hygiene ProteinProtein is essential for the growth of muscle and the repair of damaged tissueComes in two main sourcesAnimal protein (poultry, fish, milk, eggs)Vegetable protein (lentils, beans)Weight lifters, sprinters and other sportsmen and women requiring large muscle mass will need high protein diets
19Diet, Health and Hygiene FatsFat is important because it provides energy and helps other things work such as fat soluble vitamins.Energy provided from fats should be considerably less than from carbohydratesFoods rich in fats include, butter, cream, oils etc.
20Diet, Health and Hygiene VitaminsWe only require vitamins in small quantitiesImportant for: good vision, good skin, red blood cell formation, healing, healthy bones + teeth.Sources of vitamins include:Vitamin A – milk, cheese, carrots (vision)Vitamin B – whole grains and nuts (release carbs)Vitamin C – Found in fruits (immune system & skin)Vitamin D – Fish, liver (absorption of Calcium)Vitamin E – Vegetable oil, cereals (growth & development)
21Diet, Health and Hygiene MineralsAre used by our bodies for a variety of functions.Calcium: formation and maintenance of bone and teeth (milk, cheese and cereals)Iron: Important for bloods ability to carry oxygen (iron is found in a range of foods most easily absorbed is in meat)
22Diet, Health and Hygiene WaterTransports, nutrients, waste, hormonesIt is the main component of many cellsHelps regulate body temperatureBoxers and marathon runners need liquid during their exertion in order to offset dehydration
23Diet, Health and Hygiene Fibre or RoughageIt is vital in the functioning of the digestive systemGood sources of fibre include, wholegrain breads and cereals, oats, fruits and vegetablesBLOODSHUNTINGRedirection of blood flow to the vital organs during exercise (stomach bypassed.... Stitch...do not eat 2hrs prior!)
24Diet, Health and Hygiene Overweight - having weight in excess of normal. Not harmful unless accompanied by overfatnessOverfat – more body fat than you should haveObese –describes people who are very overfat
25Diet, Health and Hygiene A persons diet will often be affected by the sport for which they are training.I.e. a marathon runner or decathlete will have to consume large amounts of carbohydrates in order to maintain energy levelsA weight lifter or heavy-weight boxer will need a diet containing large amounts of protein to maintain and build muscle mass.Whilst a Jockey may need to monitor his diet closely to avoid putting on weight.
27Diet, Health and Hygiene Under eating will result in a loss of body weight and may have a negative effect on performance as the athlete may have low energy levels, or lack of muscle massOvereating will increase body weight and may make you less agile, flexible and reduce endurance
28Diet, Health and Hygiene Somatotypes (body build/physique)Measurements taken from height, weight, bone size, muscle girth and fatEndomorph FATMesomorph MUSCLESEctomorph TALL THINCertain body types are particularly suited to different sports!
29Diet, Health and Hygiene EndomorphCharacteristics: Fatness, round body shape, large build.Effect on sport: often not suited to endurance events, most commonly found in events requiring large body mass and strength, such as sumo.
30Diet, Health and Hygiene MesomorphCharacteristics: muscular, broad shoulders, triangular body shapeEffect on sport: Most sportsmen are mesomrophs as most sports require strength and power. Strongmen and sprinters are good examples.
31Diet, Health and Hygiene EctomorphCharacteristics: Thin, lean, low body fat levelsEffect on sport: often found competing in endurance events such as the marathon and sports requiring a light body such as jockey
32Diet, Health and Hygiene Smoking – Damages heart and lungs and raises blood pressure, increased risk of cancer, heart diseaseReduces body ability to carry oxygen so performers suffer from fatigue and loss of breath more easily.Alcohol – Can cause damage to the liver and brain cells and increase likelihood of dehydrationIt may affect performance by impairing judgments, slowing reaction times and causing dehydration, it is commonly used as a sedative in sports such as archery to improve performance.
33Prevention of injury 1.2.1In all sports were competition is part of the game, rules will be in place to protect players, officials and spectators from injury.How can we make activities safe?Protective clothingAppropriate footwearBalanced competitionWeight categoriesMixed or single sexed competitionAge Groups
34Balanced CompetitionAnother way to make sport safe is to try to level the competition by grading competitors in various ways:Weight categories – Boxing and Karate.Mixed or single sex competitions – contact sports.Age groups – football etc. (but not all children of the same age are the same height or weight)