2Objectives Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic exercises. Examine the benefits of cardiovascular exercises.Identify different types of training methods, and apply these methods to your training routines.Learn to measure your heart rate.
3Cardiovascular Endurance The ability of the lungs, heart, and blood vessels to deliver adequate amounts of oxygen to the cells to meet the demands of prolonged physical activity.Cardio (Cardiovascular exercise) – Any movement that gets your heart rate up and increases blood circulation throughout the body.
4Blood passes through the alveoli Basic PhysiologyBreathingOxygen in air is taken up by the alveoli in the lungsBlood passes through the alveoliOxygen is picked up by hemoglobin and transported to the heartHeartpumps oxygenated blood through the circulatory system to all organs & tissues in the body
5The HeartThe heart is a double pump – two separate pumps that work side by sideThe right side pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungsThe left side pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body
6Blood Vessels There are three main groups of blood vessels. Arteries and arterioles- transport oxygenated blood away from the heart.Capillaries – bring blood to the tissues where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged.Veins and venules – transport deoxygenated blood back towards the heart.
7Fit IndividualDuring prolonged exercise, an individual with a high level of cardiovascular endurance is able to deliver the required amount of oxygen to the tissues easily.
8Unfit individualHas to work the cardiovascular system much harder; the heart has to work at a higher rate, less oxygen is delivered to the tissues, and consequently, the individual fatigues faster.
9Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise – energy required to perform cardiorespiratory activities is generated through aerobic (oxygen-using) metabolisme.g. walking, aerobic dance,cycling, etc.
10- can be carried out for only short periods – 2-3 minutes. Anaerobic exercise- intensity is so high that oxygen cannot be delivered and utilized to produce energy and you begin to produce lactic acid.- can be carried out for only short periods – 2-3 minutes.Anaerobic activities such as 100-meter races in track and field; sprinting in swimming, gymnastics routines and strength training
11Benefits of Aerobic Training Higher maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)increase in the amount of oxygen the body is able to use during physical activityallows someone to exercise longer & more intensely before becoming fatigued.
12Benefits of Aerobic Training 2. Increase in oxygen-carrying capacity of the bloodRed blood cell (hemoglobin) count3. Increase in cardiac muscle strengthheart responds to training by increasing in strength and sizestronger heart, more forceful contraction which aids to eject more blood w/ each beat (Stroke volume)
13Benefits of Aerobic Training 4. Decrease in Resting Heart Rateby 10 – 20 beats per minute (bpm) after 6-8 weeks of trainingA reduction of 20 bpm saves the heart about 10,483,200 beats per year.5. Lower heart rate at a given workloadsStroke volume yields a Lower heart that rate allows the heart to rest longer in between beats
14Benefits of Aerobic Training 6. Increase in number of functional capillaries - more gas exchange can take place 7. Faster recovery time - Reduce DOMS by bringing more oxygen rich blood to the muscles tissue for repair and rebuilding. 8. Lower blood pressure & blood lipids - reduces major risk factor for stroke & coronary heart disease - lower levels of fats (such as cholesterol and triglycerides)6. Mitochondria—All energy necessary for cell functions is produced in the mitochondria ;as their size and numbers increase, so does the potential to produce energy for muscular work7. Capilliaries—smallest blood vessels carying oxygenated blood to body tissues.- allows for the exchange of 02 and C02 between the blood & the cells.- speeds up the rate at which waste products of cell metabolism can be removed.8. Recovery time—amount of time the body takes to return to resting levels after exercise.- A fit system is able to restore any internal equilibrium disrupted during exercise more quickly
15Benefits of Aerobic Training 9. Increased metabolism - More intense cardio session = higher metabolic rate 10. Improved hormonal profile - Release “feel good” chemicals that will help ease symptoms of depression (serotonin) - Release hormones that regulate appetite and fat accumulation (leptin & insulin)6. Mitochondria—All energy necessary for cell functions is produced in the mitochondria ;as their size and numbers increase, so does the potential to produce energy for muscular work7. Capilliaries—smallest blood vessels carying oxygenated blood to body tissues.- allows for the exchange of 02 and C02 between the blood & the cells.- speeds up the rate at which waste products of cell metabolism can be removed.8. Recovery time—amount of time the body takes to return to resting levels after exercise.- A fit system is able to restore any internal equilibrium disrupted during exercise more quickly
17How much cardio do I need? To lose fat: 3-5 times per week at minutes per session depending on intensity.To gain weight/muscles: No cardio at all, or light cardio work twice a week for 20 minutes per session.
18Intensity of ExerciseCardiorespiratory development occurs when the heart is working between 60 and 85 percent of the maximal heart rate.Unfit individuals should use a 40 to 50 percent training intensities
19Determining Intensity Estimate Maximal Heart Rate (MHR)MHR= ageCheck Resting Heart Rate (RHR)Calculate target heart rate zone to determine training intensities (TI).60-85% of MHR
20Types of Cardiovascular Training Low intensity, long duration cardioIntensity of around 40-60% of MHRSlow, easy, and long (over 40 minutes)Walking, cycling, joggingGood for fat loss, especially in very obese peopleMedium intensity, medium duration cardio70% of MHR20-40 minutesCharacterized by heavy breathingFat loss and increasing aerobic capacityHigh intensity, short duration cardio80-85% of MHRVery demanding, 5-20 minutes
21Types of Cardiovascular Training Aerobic Interval TrainingA period of moderate to high intensity aerobic workThen a period of rest or low intensity workEx: 3 min. of running, then 1 minute of slow walking, repeated 4 times.Anaerobic Interval TrainingHITT: High-intensity interval trainingImproved athletic condition and fat burning85-100% of your MHRHigh intensity anaerobic exercise, then medium intensity exercise for recovery.Ex seconds of hard sprinting, then seconds of jogging.