Presentation on theme: "I. President Washington (pages 279–281) On Apr. 6, 1789, G. Washington was elected 1st prez. of new nation. Precedents, or traditions, that he set continue."— Presentation transcript:
I. President Washington (pages 279–281) On Apr. 6, 1789, G. Washington was elected 1st prez. of new nation. Precedents, or traditions, that he set continue to shape presidency of U.S. Everything Washington did would set precedent for future prez. Martha Washington too
Interesting Facts about GEORGE WASHINGTON Birthday: February 22, 1732 Birthplace: Westmoreland, VA Education: No college, studied at home Wife: Martha Dandridge Custis Washington (widow) Occupations: planter, soldier, surveyor, cartographer Height: 62 Favorite Foods: ice cream, fish False Teeth: all but one at end of life; made of ivory Pets: Horse named Nelson
Mr. President On April 30, 1789 George Washington was inaugurated president in 1 st capital NYC He was very serious Wore a dark brown suit w/silver eagle design buttons (suit is now at the Chicago Historical Society) No political party
I. President Washington (pages 279–281) Congress created 3 dept.s in executive branch: State Dept., Treasury Dept., & War Dept. Also created offices of attorney general & postmaster general. Washington appointed Thomas Jefferson-secretary of state Alexander Hamilton- secretary of treasury Henry Knox- secretary of war Edmund Randolph- attorney general. These people became known as the cabinet. After much debate, Prez given power to dismiss cabinet officials w/out Senate approval.
I. President Washington (pages 279–281) Judiciary Act of 1789 established Supreme Court, district courts, & courts of appeals. John Jay was appointed to lead Supreme Court as 1st chief justice. In December 1791, 10 amendments were added to Constitution. These amendments protected individual rights & became known as Bill of Rights.
New US faced growing national debt, or amount of $ owed by govt. to lenders. II. Strengthening the Economy (pages 281–284)
To fight Revolutionary War, govt. borrowed $ by issuing bonds-paper notes promising to repay $ in certain length of time. While waiting for repayment, many citizens sold their bonds to speculators- people who take risks w/their $ to make larger profit. II. Strengthening the Economy (pages 281–284)
IOU $100 today= 130 in 5 years My country needs $ for the war- Ill loan them $100 today to get paid back w/interest later. Now worth $130 Maybe you hit hard times and need $. You may sell it for what you bought it for or less to a speculator. IOU Bought for $100 sold for $75 5 years later
Hamilton Born Jan. 11, 1755, on island of Nevis Illegitimate child Very smart Came to US after mothers death Ambitious- America was land of opportunity Fought in Rev. War.- became aide to GW Settled in NY & had successful law firm
Alexander Hamilton proposed that national govt. pay off American citizens who had supported country in war by paying bonds original value. Hamilton believed U.S. must repay all debts so It wont lose trust of investors To gain respect from other countries II. Strengthening the Economy (pages 281–284)
Congress & many citizens, particularly in Southern states, opposed idea. James Madison & others believe Hamiltons plan would reward speculators They shouldnt make big profit on war Some had bought bonds at fraction of price Also, most southern states had already paid their debts. Believed other states should do same. II. Strengthening the Economy (pages 281–284)
Hamilton promised to support putting nations capital in South if southerners agreed to his plan for repaying state debts Congress agrees & passes bills in 1790 both to take over state debts & move capital Capital will not be part of any state A special district was created btwn. VA & MD for nations capital, which became Washington, D.C. In meantime capital is moved from NYC to Philadelphia II. Strengthening the Economy (pages 281–284)
A national bank was created despite some opposition Bank of the United States (BUS) Some (Jefferson & Madison) believed it would be unconstitutional Bank would be place for govt. to deposit $ & make loans to businesses II. Strengthening the Economy (pages 281–284)
Hamilton proposed a protective tariff (tax on imports) to encourage people to buy American products. Congress passed low tariffs to raise $ but did not pass protective tariffs. $ from tariffs became 90% of govt. income Congress approved variety of national taxes for operating expenses of national govt., an idea proposed by Hamilton. II. Strengthening the Economy (pages 281–284)
Bank of the United States to encourage economic growth The government deposited money from taxes in the Bank. The Bank issued paper money to pay the governments bills and make loans to farmers and businesses. Tariff, or tax, on foreign goods to make imported goods more expensive than American-made goods Hamilton & many northerners wanted a high tariff to protect American goods from foreign competition. Southern farmers opposed a high tariff. Congress passed a tariff, but it was lower than the tariff Hamilton wanted.
I. The Whiskey Rebellion (page 286) Farmers bartered (traded) whiskey for goods they needed. Western farmers distilled grain into whiskey before shipping it to East- whiskey was more valuable than grain. In 1791 Congress placed tax on whiskey & other alcoholic beverages.
I. The Whiskey Rebellion (page 286) A large mob of farmers attacked tax collectors who came to get tax money. This protest was called Whiskey Rebellion. Washington sent troops across Appalachian Mts. to put down rebellion, but rebels had disbanded. However, this sent message that if citizens wished to challenge law they had to do it peacefully.
Native Americans living btwn Appalachian Mts. & MS River insisted that U.S. govt. had no authority over them. Battled Americans over frontier land. Washington sent Gen. Arthur St. Clair to restore order on frontier Chief Little Turtle defeated U.S. soldiers. II. Struggle Over the West (page 287)
Native Americans demanded that all settlers north of OH River leave territory Washington sent another army headed by Anthony Wayne Waynes army defeated Native Americans at Battle of Fallen Timbers. Treaty of Greenville (1795) Native Americans agreed to surrender most of their land in present day OH II. Struggle Over the West (page 287)
In 1789, French rebelled against their king (Louis XVI) July 14 th - Bastille Day Peasants & middle class paid heavy taxes, while nobles paid none. French wanted constitution to limit kings power & protect basic rights.
Reaction in America At 1 st most Americans were supportive of French We understood desire for liberty/democracy They were our 1 st ally French Rev. took violent turn Jacobites took power & used guillotine to kill 1,000s; including King Louis XVI & his wife Marie Antoinette
When Britain & France went to war in 1793, Washington hoped U.S. could maintain its neutrality (not take sides in conflict). French sent Edmond Genêt to US to gain Americas support Washington discouraged American involvement: It is the sincere wish of United America to have nothing to do with… the squabbles of European nations Issues Neutrality Proclamation- April 1793 III.Problems with Europe (pages 288– 289)
Neutrality Proclamation April 1793 GW issues Neutrality Proclamation US wont support either side in war No American is allowed to aide either side Jefferson was not happy- this & other differences (esp. w/ Hamilton) cause him to resign Difficult for GW to enforce proclamation US citizens still wanted to do business w/ both countries Britain & France want U.S. to take sides
US had made treaty w/ France during Am. Rev. that allowed France to use US ports France wanted to use these ports during war to restock ships & launch attacks on British ships Its hardly staying neutral if French use U.S. ports Cabinet is divided Jefferson still sees France as our ally & feels that a country has the right to revolt any way they choose Hamilton & Adams disagree w/ Jefferson Believe that freedom won through violence is ill gained They argue that the treaty US had w/ France was made w/ king who is dead so treaty does not have to be honored
American merchants keep trading w/ both sides This angers both Britain & France Neither country respects U.S. neutrality rights British forced crews to serve in navy- practice known as impressment. Many Americans want to go to war w/ Britain Washington knows country is too weak to get in another war He sends John Jay over to work out agreement III.Problems with Europe (pages 288– 289)
British agreed to Jays Treaty Few Americans approved of treaty. Didnt address issue of impressment Didnt mention Britains interference w/American trade. Britain must: Pay damages for ships captured in 1793 Give up forts in OH Valley Despite protests Senate approved treaty in GW accepted too to avoid war III.Problems with Europe (pages 288– 289)
Spain, worried about becoming target of British & American forces, wanted to estab. positive relationship w/US. Washington sent Thomas Pinckney to make deal w/Spanish. Pinckneys Treaty gave Americans right to sail on MS River & right to trade at New Orleans. III.Problems with Europe (pages 288– 289)
Washington announced he would not seek 3rd term. He resigned as prez. in 1796, after 2 four-yr. terms. III.Problems with Europe (pages 288– 289)
The Ultimate Precedent No president until FDR would run for 3 rd term In Washingtons Farewell Address he left Americans w/ 3 pieces of advice printed in the American Daily Advertiser on Sept. 17, 1796 Try to avoid political parties & geographic differences- they will tear country apart Try to stay neutral- dont get too close to any one country nor develop a hatred for any one country Dont get involved in European business
Washingtons Retirement Washington would be retired for less than 3 yrs. before he died in 1799 Martha would live another 3 yrs. dying in 1802
I. Opposing Views (pages 291–293) As political issues arose in new country, Americans began taking sides, becoming partisan (favoring 1 side of an issue). By mid-1790s, 2 political parties had taken shape: Federalists & Democratic- Republicans.
I. Opposing Views (pages 291–293) Federalists stood for strong U.S. govt. policies favoring biz. Hamilton & Federalists believed federal govt. had implied powers (powers that were suggested but not directly stated in Const.)
I. Opposing Views (pages 291–293) Opposition to Federalists began when Philip Freneau began publishing newspaper. Opponents to Hamilton came together & called their party Democratic-Republicans. They wanted limited central govt. policies favoring farmers & urban workers. Jefferson & Madison disagreed w/ Hamilton.
I. Opposing Views (pages 291–293) Federalists supported representative govt. Republicans believed that liberty was safe only if ordinary citizens participated in govt. Washington tried to ease tensions btwn. 2 groups, but Jefferson & Hamilton ended up resigning their posts.
I. Opposing Views (pages 291–293)
Election of 1796 To prepare for election, Federalists & Republicans held caucuses (meetings). John Adams represented Federalists in election Thomas Jefferson represented Republicans. Adams won election- Jefferson became v.p.! Adams: 71 electoral votes, president Jefferson: 68 electoral votes, v.p. Election process though not perfect worked to put 2 nd president into office
John Adams- 2 nd Prez. Born in MA Bay Colony in Harvard-educated lawyer Delegate to 1st & 2nd CC During Revolutionary War he served in France & Holland in diplomatic roles Helped negotiate Treaty of Paris Adams' 2 terms as VP were frustrating He complained to his wife Abigail, "My country has in its wisdom contrived for me the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived."
II. President John Adams (pages 293– 297) French resented Jays Treaty Felt it was an attempt to help Britain. They began to seize American ships that carried cargo to Britain. Adams sent a delegation to France to settle dispute
II. President John Adams (pages 293– 297) French foreign minister Charles de Talleyrand would not meet w/ Americans. Instead, 3 French agents were sent Asked for $250,000 for Talleyrand & $10 mill. loan for France American delegation refused
II. President John Adams (pages 293– 297) US diplomats told Adams- Adams told Congress referring to French agents as X,Y & Z Americans learned of incident & created slogan: Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute! In response, Congress: Established Navy Department in April 1798 Increased size of American army.
II. President John Adams (pages 293– 297) Although war was not officially declared, French & U.S. naval ships clashed several times btwn Many Americans felt France was an enemy. Republicans, who had been friendly w/ France in past, did not condemn French. Because of this, some Republicans were voted out of office.
II. President John Adams (pages 293– 297) Americans became more suspicious of aliens (immigrants-not citizens but living in US). Many aliens supported ideals of French Revolution. Some Americans feared that these aliens would not remain loyal if US went to war w/ France. Federalists passed Alien & Sedition Acts attempting to protect nations security. Sedition refers to activities aimed at weakening established govt.
Alien Act passed in 1798 allowed Prez. to expel any foreigner thought to be dangerous to country Sedition Act made it legal to fine or even jail citizens for criticizing govt or its officials! Citizenship requirements also change- previously white males could become citizens after living in U.S. for 5 yrs.- new law changed to 14 yrs.! Again, immigrants often voted Republican
Republicans are Outraged Rightfully so Republicans were irate w/ new laws Blatantly infringed on rights- esp. 1 st amend. Pro-Republican editors & even Congressmen were fined & jailed under Sedition Act Jefferson urges states to take action against laws
II. President John Adams (pages 293– 297) Many Federalists believed that Alien & Sedition Acts would weaken Republican Party. Instead, laws hurt Federalists more. An even larger # of immigrants gave their support to Republicans. Newspaper editors jailed for sedition were hailed as heroes in cause of freedom of the press.
II. President John Adams (pages 293– 297) VA & KY Resolutions of 1798 & 1799 claimed that Alien & Sedition Acts could not be put into action because unconstitutional. The Kentucky Resolutions also suggested that states could nullify, or legally overturn, federal laws considered unconstitutional. VA & KY Resolutions affirmed principle of states rights- limiting federal govt. to those powers clearly assigned by Const.
II. President John Adams (pages 293– 297) In 1800 French agreed to treaty w/ U.S. & stopped attacks on American ships. John Adams is now considered the Father of the U.S. navy