Presentation on theme: "On Apr. 6, 1789, G. Washington was elected 1st prez. of new nation."— Presentation transcript:
1On Apr. 6, 1789, G. Washington was elected 1st prez. of new nation. I. President Washington (pages 279–281)On Apr. 6, 1789, G. Washington was elected 1st prez. of new nation.Precedents, or traditions, that he set continue to shape presidency of U.S.Everything Washington did would set precedent for future prez.Martha Washington too
2Interesting Facts about GEORGE WASHINGTON Birthday: February 22, 1732Birthplace: Westmoreland, VAEducation: No college, studied at homeWife: Martha Dandridge Custis Washington (widow)Occupations: planter, soldier, surveyor, cartographerHeight: 6’2”Favorite Foods: ice cream, fishFalse Teeth: all but one at end of life; made of ivoryPets: Horse named Nelson
3Mr. PresidentOn April 30, 1789 George Washington was inaugurated president in 1st capital NYCHe was very seriousWore a dark brown suit w/silver eagle design buttons (suit is now at the Chicago Historical Society)No political party
4Also created offices of attorney general & postmaster general. I. President Washington (pages 279–281)Congress created 3 dept.s in executive branch: State Dept., Treasury Dept., & War Dept.Also created offices of attorney general & postmaster general.Washington appointedThomas Jefferson-secretary of stateAlexander Hamilton- secretary of treasuryHenry Knox- secretary of warEdmund Randolph- attorney general.These people became known as the cabinet.After much debate, Prez given power to dismiss cabinet officials w/out Senate approval.
5John Jay was appointed to lead Supreme Court as 1st chief justice. I. President Washington (pages 279–281)Judiciary Act of 1789 established Supreme Court, district courts, & courts of appeals.John Jay was appointed to lead Supreme Court as 1st chief justice.In December 1791, 10 amendments were added to Constitution.These amendments protected individual rights & became known as Bill of Rights.
6II. Strengthening the Economy (pages 281–284) New US faced growing national debt, or amount of $ owed by govt. to lenders.
7II. Strengthening the Economy (pages 281–284) To fight Revolutionary War, govt. borrowed $ by issuing bonds-paper notes promising to repay $ in certain length of time.While waiting for repayment, many citizens sold their bonds to speculators- people who take risks w/their $ to make larger profit.
8II. Strengthening the Economy (pages 281–284) IOU$100 today= 130 in 5 yearsMaybe you hit hard times and need $. You may sell it for what you bought it for or less to a speculator.IOUBought for $100 sold for $75“My country needs $ for the war- I’ll loan them $100 today to get paid back w/interest later.”Now worth $1305 years later
9Hamilton Born Jan. 11, 1755, on island of Nevis Illegitimate child Very smartCame to US after mother’s deathAmbitious- America was land of opportunityFought in Rev. War.- became aide to GWSettled in NY & had successful law firm
10Hamilton believed U.S. must repay all debts so II. Strengthening the Economy (pages 281–284)Alexander Hamilton proposed that national govt. pay off American citizens who had supported country in war by paying bonds’ original value.Hamilton believed U.S. must repay all debts soIt won’t lose trust of investorsTo gain respect from other countries
11They shouldn’t make big profit on war II. Strengthening the Economy (pages 281–284)Congress & many citizens, particularly in Southern states, opposed idea.James Madison & others believe Hamilton’s plan would reward speculatorsThey shouldn’t make big profit on warSome had bought bonds at fraction of priceAlso, most southern states had already paid their debts.Believed other states should do same.
12Capital will not be part of any state II. Strengthening the Economy (pages 281–284)Hamilton promised to support putting nation’s capital in South if southerners agreed to his plan for repaying state debtsCongress agrees & passes bills in 1790 both to take over state debts & move capitalCapital will not be part of any stateA special district was created btwn. VA & MD for nation’s capital, which became Washington, D.C.In meantime capital is moved from NYC to Philadelphia
13A national bank was created despite some opposition II. Strengthening the Economy (pages 281–284)A national bank was created despite some oppositionBank of the United States (BUS)Some (Jefferson & Madison) believed it would be unconstitutionalBank would be place for govt. to deposit $ & make loans to businesses
14$ from tariffs became 90% of govt. income II. Strengthening the Economy (pages 281–284)Hamilton proposed a protective tariff (tax on imports) to encourage people to buy American products.Congress passed low tariffs to raise $ but did not pass protective tariffs.$ from tariffs became 90% of govt. incomeCongress approved variety of national taxes for operating expenses of national govt., an idea proposed by Hamilton.
15Bank of the United States to encourage economic growthThe government deposited money from taxes in the Bank.The Bank issued paper money to pay the government’s bills and make loans to farmers and businesses.Tariff, or tax, on foreign goodsto make imported goods more expensive than American-made goodsHamilton & many northerners wanted a high tariff to protect American goods from foreign competition.Southern farmers opposed a high tariff.Congress passed a tariff, but it was lower than the tariff Hamilton wanted.
16I. The Whiskey Rebellion (page 286) Farmers bartered (traded) whiskey for goods they needed.Western farmers distilled grain into whiskey before shipping it to East- whiskey was more valuable than grain.In 1791 Congress placed tax on whiskey & other alcoholic beverages.
17I. The Whiskey Rebellion (page 286) A large mob of farmers attacked tax collectors who came to get tax money.This protest was called Whiskey Rebellion.Washington sent troops across Appalachian Mts. to put down rebellion, but rebels had disbanded.However, this sent message that if citizens wished to challenge law they had to do it peacefully.
18II. Struggle Over the West (page 287) Native Americans living btwn Appalachian Mts. & MS River insisted that U.S. govt. had no authority over them.Battled Americans over frontier land.Washington sent Gen. Arthur St. Clair to restore order on frontierChief Little Turtle defeated U.S. soldiers.
19II. Struggle Over the West (page 287) Native Americans’ demanded that all settlers north of OH River leave territoryWashington sent another army headed by Anthony WayneWayne’s army defeated Native Americans at Battle of Fallen Timbers.Treaty of Greenville (1795) Native Americans agreed to surrender most of their land in present day OH
21In 1789, French rebelled against their king (Louis XVI) July 14th- Bastille DayPeasants & middle class paid heavy taxes, while nobles paid none.French wanted constitution to limit king’s power & protect basic rights.
22Reaction in America At 1st most Americans were supportive of French We understood desire for liberty/democracyThey were our 1st allyFrench Rev. took violent turnJacobites took power & used guillotine to kill 1,000s; including King Louis XVI & his wife Marie Antoinette
23III. Problems with Europe (pages 288–289) When Britain & France went to war in 1793, Washington hoped U.S. could maintain its neutrality (not take sides in conflict).French sent Edmond Genêt to US to gain America’s supportWashington discouraged American involvement:“ It is the sincere wish of United America to have nothing to do with… the squabbles of European nations”Issues Neutrality Proclamation- April 1793
24Neutrality Proclamation April 1793 GW issues Neutrality ProclamationUS won’t support either side in warNo American is allowed to aide either sideJefferson was not happy- this & other differences (esp. w/ Hamilton) cause him to resignDifficult for GW to enforce proclamationUS citizens still wanted to do business w/ both countriesBritain & France want U.S. to take sides
25US had made treaty w/ France during Am. Rev US had made treaty w/ France during Am. Rev. that allowed France to use US portsFrance wanted to use these ports during war to restock ships & launch attacks on British shipsIt’s hardly staying neutral if French use U.S. portsCabinet is dividedJefferson still sees France as our ally & feels that a country has the right to revolt any way they chooseHamilton & Adams disagree w/ JeffersonBelieve that freedom won through violence is “ill gained”They argue that the treaty US had w/ France was made w/ king who is dead so treaty does not have to be honored
26III. Problems with Europe (pages 288–289) American merchants keep trading w/ both sidesThis angers both Britain & FranceNeither country respects U.S. neutrality rightsBritish forced crews to serve in navy- practice known as impressment.Many Americans want to go to war w/ BritainWashington knows country is too weak to get in another warHe sends John Jay over to work out agreement
27III. Problems with Europe (pages 288–289) British agreed to Jay’s TreatyFew Americans approved of treaty.Didn’t address issue of impressmentDidn’t mention Britain’s interference w/American trade.Britain must:Pay damages for ships captured in 1793Give up forts in OH ValleyDespite protests Senate approved treaty in GW accepted too to avoid war
28III. Problems with Europe (pages 288–289) Spain, worried about becoming target of British & American forces, wanted to estab. positive relationship w/US.Washington sent Thomas Pinckney to make deal w/Spanish.Pinckney’s Treaty gave Americans right to sail on MS River & right to trade at New Orleans.
29III. Problems with Europe (pages 288–289) Washington announced he would not seek 3rd term.He resigned as prez. in 1796, after 2 four-yr. terms.
30The Ultimate Precedent No president until FDR would run for 3rd termIn Washington’s Farewell Address he left Americans w/ 3 pieces of advice printed in the American Daily Advertiser on Sept. 17, 1796Try to avoid political parties & geographic differences- they will tear country apartTry to stay neutral- don’t get too close to any one country nor develop a hatred for any one countryDon’t get involved in European business
31Washington’s Retirement Washington would be retired for less than 3 yrs. before he died in 1799Martha would live another 3 yrs. dying in 1802
32I. Opposing Views (pages 291–293) As political issues arose in new country, Americans began taking sides, becoming partisan (favoring 1 side of an issue).By mid-1790s, 2 political parties had taken shape: Federalists & Democratic-Republicans.
33I. Opposing Views (pages 291–293) Federalists stood forstrong U.S. govt.policies favoring biz.Hamilton & Federalists believed federal govt. had implied powers (powers that were suggested but not directly stated in Const.)
34I. Opposing Views (pages 291–293) Opposition to Federalists began when Philip Freneau began publishing newspaper.Opponents to Hamilton came together & called their party Democratic-Republicans.They wantedlimited central govt.policies favoring farmers & urban workers.Jefferson & Madison disagreed w/ Hamilton.
35Federalists supported representative govt. I. Opposing Views (pages 291–293)Federalists supported representative govt.Republicans believed that liberty was safe only if ordinary citizens participated in govt.Washington tried to ease tensions btwn. 2 groups, but Jefferson & Hamilton ended up resigning their posts.
37I. Opposing Views (pages 291–293) Election of 1796To prepare for election, Federalists & Republicans held caucuses (meetings).John Adams represented Federalists in electionThomas Jefferson represented Republicans.Adams won election- Jefferson became v.p.!Adams: 71 electoral votes, presidentJefferson: 68 electoral votes, v.p.Election process though not perfect worked to put 2nd president into office
38John Adams- 2nd Prez. Born in MA Bay Colony in 1735. Harvard-educated lawyerDelegate to 1st & 2nd CCDuring Revolutionary War he served in France & Holland in diplomatic rolesHelped negotiate Treaty of ParisAdams' 2 terms as VP were frustratingHe complained to his wife Abigail, "My country has in its wisdom contrived for me the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived."
39II. President John Adams (pages 293–297) French resented Jay’s TreatyFelt it was an attempt to help Britain.They began to seize American ships that carried cargo to Britain.Adams sent a delegation to France to settle dispute
40II. President John Adams (pages 293–297) French foreign minister Charles de Talleyrand would not meet w/ Americans.Instead, 3 French agents were sentAsked for $250,000 for Talleyrand & $10 mill. loan for FranceAmerican delegation refused
41II. President John Adams (pages 293–297) US diplomats told Adams- Adams told Congress referring to French agents as “X,Y & Z”Americans learned of incident & created slogan: “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!”In response, Congress:Established Navy Department in April 1798Increased size of American army.
42II. President John Adams (pages 293–297) Although war was not officially declared, French & U.S. naval ships clashed several times btwnMany Americans felt France was an enemy.Republicans, who had been friendly w/ France in past, did not condemn French.Because of this, some Republicans were voted out of office.
43II. President John Adams (pages 293–297) Americans became more suspicious of aliens (immigrants-not citizens but living in US).Many aliens supported ideals of French Revolution.Some Americans feared that these aliens would not remain loyal if US went to war w/ France.Federalists passed Alien & Sedition Acts attempting to protect nation’s security.Sedition refers to activities aimed at weakening established govt.
44Alien Act passed in 1798 allowed Prez Alien Act passed in 1798 allowed Prez. to expel any foreigner thought to be dangerous to countrySedition Act made it legal to fine or even jail citizens for criticizing gov’t or its officials!Citizenship requirements also change- previously white males could become citizens after living in U.S. for 5 yrs.- new law changed to 14 yrs.!Again, immigrants often voted Republican
45Republicans are Outraged Rightfully so Republicans were irate w/ new lawsBlatantly infringed on rights- esp. 1st amend.Pro-Republican editors & even Congressmen were fined & jailed under Sedition ActJefferson urges states to take action against laws
46II. President John Adams (pages 293–297) Many Federalists believed that Alien & Sedition Acts would weaken Republican Party.Instead, laws hurt Federalists more.An even larger # of immigrants gave their support to Republicans.Newspaper editors jailed for sedition were hailed as heroes in cause of freedom of the press.
47II. President John Adams (pages 293–297) VA & KY Resolutions of 1798 & 1799 claimed that Alien & Sedition Acts could not be put into action because unconstitutional.The Kentucky Resolutions also suggested that states could nullify, or legally overturn, federal laws considered unconstitutional.VA & KY Resolutions affirmed principle of states’ rights- limiting federal govt. to those powers clearly assigned by Const.
48II. President John Adams (pages 293–297) In 1800 French agreed to treaty w/ U.S. & stopped attacks on American ships.John Adams is now considered the “Father of the U.S. navy”