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Launching a New Nation Chapter 8. Washington takes Office  The Capital of the United states was New York City  George Washington traveled there in April.

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Presentation on theme: "Launching a New Nation Chapter 8. Washington takes Office  The Capital of the United states was New York City  George Washington traveled there in April."— Presentation transcript:

1 Launching a New Nation Chapter 8

2 Washington takes Office  The Capital of the United states was New York City  George Washington traveled there in April of  Washington was inaugurated on April 30, 1789  He was anxious and knew that his actions would set a precedent.

3 Washington takes Office  Congress and the President had to put together a working government.  The Congress passed laws to set up three departments for the Executive Branch (The President)  The Department of the Treasury, Department of State and Department of war  Each was headed by a person chosen by the President

4 Washington takes Office  The President appointed an attorney general to advise him on legal issues  Alexander Hamilton was the Secretary of Treasury  Thomas Jefferson was the Secretary of State  Henry Knox was the Secretary of War  Edmund Randolph was the Attorney General  Today the Presidents advisors are known as the Cabinet.


6 Washington takes Office  The Judiciary Act of 1789 set up for the Supreme Court of 6 justices  Under the Supreme Court were 3 circuit Courts and 13 district courts  The job of the federal courts was to hear appeals from the state court  John Jay was the First Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

7 Washington takes Office  After the Revolution the federal government owed $52 million  This was owed in bonds  Speculators bought bonds from people because the people thought that they were not going to worth money

8 Washington takes Office  Alexander Hamilton, the Secretary of Treasury came up with a plan to solve the problem  The US government would agree to pay all federal and state debts  The US government would open a national bank for depositing government goods  The US government would start a high tax on imported goods

9 Washington takes Office  Hamilton wanted to prove to other countries that the US would pay back their debts  Several southern states did not think they should have to pay the federal debt because they already paid off their state debt  After debate, the Southerners would help pay back the debt  In return the capital would be in the South


11 Washington takes Office  Hamilton created a bank that would hold funds and issue paper money  Thomas Jefferson fought against the bank saying it was Unconstitutional  The bank was created 1791  Hamilton imposed a tariff on goods  It would raise money for the government

12 Washington takes Office  In 1791, Congress started a tax on whiskey  This was supposed to raise money for the government  It led to a revolt because many farmers made money by turning corn into whiskey.

13 Washington takes Office  In 1794, officials in western PA tried to collect taxes  The Farmers rebelled and burned down the home of the tax collector  This gained popularity and a mob marched throughout Pittsburgh and was known as the Whiskey Rebellion  Washington sent the militia to break it up  This was an example of the new government’s strength.


15 The Birth of Political Parties  The writers of the Constitution did not believe that political parties were going to develop  People instead spoke of factions instead of political parties  Both Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton both disliked factions, they believed that it would bring chaos  By 1790, Jefferson and James Madison formed on political party and Alexander Hamilton formed the other

16 The Birth of Political Parties  The Republicans argued that the federal government was growing too strong under Washington and that power should be at the state level  Federalists believed that there needed to be a strong central government to make the country work  The country became torn, Hamilton claimed that Washington was a federalist  Newspapers claimed that Federalists wanted to betray the constitution and bring back the king

17 The Birth of Political Parties  Federalists also favored a national bank and tariff, close ties with England  Republicans did not want a bank or tariff and wanted ties with France  In 1796, George Washington would not run for a third term, this set a precedent

18 The Birth of Political Parties  Republican candidate was Thomas Jefferson  Federalists candidate was John Adams  In 1796-President and Vice president did not run together, the person who got the most votes became president and the person who got the second most was vice president  Adams became president and Jefferson became vice president  This led to tensions

19 Troubles at home and Abroad  Ten years after the Treaty of Paris, British soldiers were still in the North West Territory.  The Native Americans tried to keep their lands too  Many American leaders believed that the future depended on settling western lands  The officials tried to force the natives to sell their land  They succeeded in buying most of Kentucky and part of Tennessee

20 Troubles at home and Abroad  Washington sent troops to end the native attacks on settlers  The Natives defeated the military twice before Washington sent General Anthony Wayne.  Wayne won against the Natives at the Battle of Fallen Timbers-Named this because of all the fallen trees

21 Troubles at home and Abroad  The French Revolution began in 1789  Most Americans supported the French at first because it was similar to what they went through  But then the French Revolution got much more violent with the “reign of terror”  17,000 people, including the king and queen were killed.


23 Troubles at home and Abroad  By 1793, France and England were at war, Washington wanted to remain Neutral  But still trade with both sides-Unfortunately, both countries began to stop American ships and seize their cargo.  The British began impressment of sailors  Hamilton urged the president to stay friendly with Britain because the US depended on them for imports

24 Troubles at home and Abroad  John Jay went to London to form a treaty with Britain  The US would pay its debts to British merchants and the British would pay for the ships it has seized  They would also withdraw from the Northwest Territory  They refused to recognize the US right to trade with France and would not stop impressment  The Jay’s Treaty was approved by the senate

25 Troubles at home and Abroad  In 1796, Washington decided to retire, he left pieces of advice  He warned against political parties and thought they would divide the nations

26 Troubles at home and Abroad  He said that the nation should remain neutral and not get involved with European affairs  Things Washington accomplished  The Unites States now had a Federal Government  The economy was improving  Washington had avoided war  The British had been forced to leave the Northwest Territory

27 The Presidency of John Adams  When Adams became president, the French were angered by US neutrality  Jay’s Treaty with England only increased tensions

28 The Presidency of John Adams  In 1797, Adams sent three men to France- They were met with French agents demanding that the US pay a bribe of $250,000  They also wanted several million dollars  The Americans refused  The Bribe became public and the French agents names were kept secret  This was called the XYZ Affair

29 The Presidency of John Adams  Because of the XYZ Affair, Federalists demanded that Adams ask Congress to declare war on France  Adams asked Congress to increase the size of the Army and rebuild the Navy  He also created a separate department of the Navy

30 The Presidency of John Adams  Between 1798 and 1800, the US fought an undeclared naval war with France  To avoid real war, Adams sent a new mission to France  Napoleon Bonaparte, Frances leader, was fighting a war in Europe and agreed to stop seizing American ships.  Although Adams had avoided war, his own Federalist Party disapproved with him

31 The Presidency of John Adams  The Mistrust in France led to a mistrust of Immigrants  The Alien Act was passed saying that a person had to live in the US for 14 years before becoming a citizen, instead of 5 years  The Sedition Act was passed putting a limit on free speech-  It was a crime to speak out against the President, Congress or Government

32 The Presidency of John Adams  The Republicans denounced the Alien and Sedition Acts.  The Problem was that the Supreme Court was not fully established and did not know how to make a law unconstitutional.

33 The Presidency of John Adams  James Madison and Thomas Jefferson led the campaign toward the power of the Supreme Court  They said that states had the right to declare laws unconstitutional  The Sedition Act expired in 1801  After this, the Supreme Court could nullify the laws passed by Congress  The differences between states rights and federal rights became a problem after this.

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