2Washington takes Office The Capital of the United states was New York CityGeorge Washington traveled there in April of 1789.Washington was inaugurated on April 30, 1789He was anxious and knew that his actions would set a precedent.
3Washington takes Office Congress and the President had to put together a working government.The Congress passed laws to set up three departments for the Executive Branch (The President)The Department of the Treasury, Department of State and Department of warEach was headed by a person chosen by the President
4Washington takes Office The President appointed an attorney general to advise him on legal issuesAlexander Hamilton was the Secretary of TreasuryThomas Jefferson was the Secretary of StateHenry Knox was the Secretary of WarEdmund Randolph was the Attorney GeneralToday the Presidents advisors are known as the Cabinet.
6Washington takes Office The Judiciary Act of 1789 set up for the Supreme Court of 6 justicesUnder the Supreme Court were 3 circuit Courts and 13 district courtsThe job of the federal courts was to hear appeals from the state courtJohn Jay was the First Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
7Washington takes Office After the Revolution the federal government owed $52 millionThis was owed in bondsSpeculators bought bonds from people because the people thought that they were not going to worth money
8Washington takes Office Alexander Hamilton, the Secretary of Treasury came up with a plan to solve the problemThe US government would agree to pay all federal and state debtsThe US government would open a national bank for depositing government goodsThe US government would start a high tax on imported goods
9Washington takes Office Hamilton wanted to prove to other countries that the US would pay back their debtsSeveral southern states did not think they should have to pay the federal debt because they already paid off their state debtAfter debate, the Southerners would help pay back the debtIn return the capital would be in the South
11Washington takes Office Hamilton created a bank that would hold funds and issue paper moneyThomas Jefferson fought against the bank saying it was UnconstitutionalThe bank was created 1791Hamilton imposed a tariff on goodsIt would raise money for the government
12Washington takes Office In 1791, Congress started a tax on whiskeyThis was supposed to raise money for the governmentIt led to a revolt because many farmers made money by turning corn into whiskey.
13Washington takes Office In 1794, officials in western PA tried to collect taxesThe Farmers rebelled and burned down the home of the tax collectorThis gained popularity and a mob marched throughout Pittsburgh and was known as the Whiskey RebellionWashington sent the militia to break it upThis was an example of the new government’s strength.
15The Birth of Political Parties The writers of the Constitution did not believe that political parties were going to developPeople instead spoke of factions instead of political partiesBoth Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton both disliked factions, they believed that it would bring chaosBy 1790, Jefferson and James Madison formed on political party and Alexander Hamilton formed the other
16The Birth of Political Parties The Republicans argued that the federal government was growing too strong under Washington and that power should be at the state levelFederalists believed that there needed to be a strong central government to make the country workThe country became torn, Hamilton claimed that Washington was a federalistNewspapers claimed that Federalists wanted to betray the constitution and bring back the king
17The Birth of Political Parties Federalists also favored a national bank and tariff, close ties with EnglandRepublicans did not want a bank or tariff and wanted ties with FranceIn 1796, George Washington would not run for a third term, this set a precedent
18The Birth of Political Parties Republican candidate was Thomas JeffersonFederalists candidate was John AdamsIn 1796-President and Vice president did not run together, the person who got the most votes became president and the person who got the second most was vice presidentAdams became president and Jefferson became vice presidentThis led to tensions
19Troubles at home and Abroad Ten years after the Treaty of Paris, British soldiers were still in the North West Territory.The Native Americans tried to keep their lands tooMany American leaders believed that the future depended on settling western landsThe officials tried to force the natives to sell their landThey succeeded in buying most of Kentucky and part of Tennessee
20Troubles at home and Abroad Washington sent troops to end the native attacks on settlersThe Natives defeated the military twice before Washington sent General Anthony Wayne.Wayne won against the Natives at the Battle of Fallen Timbers-Named this because of all the fallen trees
21Troubles at home and Abroad The French Revolution began in 1789Most Americans supported the French at first because it was similar to what they went throughBut then the French Revolution got much more violent with the “reign of terror”17,000 people, including the king and queen were killed.
23Troubles at home and Abroad By 1793, France and England were at war, Washington wanted to remain NeutralBut still trade with both sides-Unfortunately, both countries began to stop American ships and seize their cargo.The British began impressment of sailorsHamilton urged the president to stay friendly with Britain because the US depended on them for imports
24Troubles at home and Abroad John Jay went to London to form a treaty with BritainThe US would pay its debts to British merchants and the British would pay for the ships it has seizedThey would also withdraw from the Northwest TerritoryThey refused to recognize the US right to trade with France and would not stop impressmentThe Jay’s Treaty was approved by the senate
25Troubles at home and Abroad In 1796, Washington decided to retire, he left pieces of adviceHe warned against political parties and thought they would divide the nations
26Troubles at home and Abroad He said that the nation should remain neutral and not get involved with European affairsThings Washington accomplishedThe Unites States now had a Federal GovernmentThe economy was improvingWashington had avoided warThe British had been forced to leave the Northwest Territory
27The Presidency of John Adams When Adams became president, the French were angered by US neutralityJay’s Treaty with England only increased tensions
28The Presidency of John Adams In 1797, Adams sent three men to France-They were met with French agents demanding that the US pay a bribe of $250,000They also wanted several million dollarsThe Americans refusedThe Bribe became public and the French agents names were kept secretThis was called the XYZ Affair
29The Presidency of John Adams Because of the XYZ Affair, Federalists demanded that Adams ask Congress to declare war on FranceAdams asked Congress to increase the size of the Army and rebuild the NavyHe also created a separate department of the Navy
30The Presidency of John Adams Between 1798 and 1800, the US fought an undeclared naval war with FranceTo avoid real war, Adams sent a new mission to FranceNapoleon Bonaparte, Frances leader, was fighting a war in Europe and agreed to stop seizing American ships.Although Adams had avoided war, his own Federalist Party disapproved with him
31The Presidency of John Adams The Mistrust in France led to a mistrust of ImmigrantsThe Alien Act was passed saying that a person had to live in the US for 14 years before becoming a citizen, instead of 5 yearsThe Sedition Act was passed putting a limit on free speech-It was a crime to speak out against the President, Congress or Government
32The Presidency of John Adams The Republicans denounced the Alien and Sedition Acts.The Problem was that the Supreme Court was not fully established and did not know how to make a law unconstitutional.
33The Presidency of John Adams James Madison and Thomas Jefferson led the campaign toward the power of the Supreme CourtThey said that states had the right to declare laws unconstitutionalThe Sedition Act expired in 1801After this, the Supreme Court could nullify the laws passed by CongressThe differences between states rights and federal rights became a problem after this.