Presentation on theme: "Overview of Electric Cars November 2010. Terminology – EVs, HEVs, & PHEVs Electric Vehicles: available today –All electric, battery power/electric motor,"— Presentation transcript:
Terminology – EVs, HEVs, & PHEVs Electric Vehicles: available today –All electric, battery power/electric motor, 70 – 130 mile range –Zero CO 2 emissions at point of use. Example, Nissan Leaf. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: available today –Internal combustion engine is main drive, 400 mile range –Battery recovers some of the braking energy –Electric motor and battery provide power boost –Example: Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles: 2 years away for mass market –Battery/electric motor drive, with internal combustion engine electricity generator –30 mile range on battery, then internal combustion engine used to provide extended range. –85% CO 2 emissions reduction. Example GM Volt
Clear imperative for governments: –Reduced CO 2 : EVs emit no CO 2 at the point of use, and considerably reduced CO 2 overall, even taking into account how the power is generated. With the current UK grid mix EVs emit less CO 2 overall, and with greater use of renewables this could reduce further. –Energy security – reduce dependence on foreign oil –No particulates, with increased health benefits, particularly in cities –No noise For consumers: –Off Peak recharging an electric car battery costs £1.50 = 100 miles range –Lower running costs as fewer moving parts (e.g. no gear mechanism, catalytic converter, exhaust) –No road tax –No congestion charge –Increased environmental credentials –But greater capex - typically an electric car will cost 50% more then a conventional vehicle. The battery typically accounts for half the cost of an electric vehicle. Why Electric Vehicles now?
Carbon savings – Electric vs ICE Vehicle typeCO 2 emissions/year Tons Car (Ford Focus diesel) Car (Ford Focus petrol) 2.2 3.2 Light Goods Vehicle (under 3.5 tons) 8 Box van (3.5 to 7.5 tons) 11 In 2006 road transport in Scotland produced 10.5 million tons/CO 2 (18% of all Scotlands emissions) The Scottish Government target is to reduce CO 2 emissions by 80% by 2050 WWF Scotland believe this is only achievable with widespread introduction of electric vehicles Energy use assumes that the vehicle is being driven 5 days/week Target emission level for 2020 Source: Watt Car?, WWF Scotland, May 2010
Charging infrastructure requirements Commercial vehicles –Typically these return to base; depots already usually have charging 3 phase power supply. –3 phase fast and rapid charging possible Private vehicles –Can be charged at home via a normal domestic plug. 3kW max as standard. This would take up to 8 hours for a complete charge. –Customers will be able to choose when they charge – different times will attract different tariffs, e.g. charging overnight will be much cheaper than charging at peak time (5p/kWh instead of 13p/kWh). –Domestic 32A fast charge hard-wired installation possible; this requires an additional charging point but could reduce charging time to 2-3 hours. –Charging posts are starting to be installed on the street, at work places and in public car parks
Impact on the grid If all EV users charged up at peak time (6pm) it would place additional strain on the grid. However, if charging is delayed till later at night it can help fill troughs and thus help with demand management. Trials have shown that consumer do not habitually charge each night and when they do charge it is overnight, therefore little effect on peak demand. Charging does not need the entire overnight period.