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Electric and Hybrids Vehicles in Public Transportation Systems Benedito Oliveira Sep. 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Electric and Hybrids Vehicles in Public Transportation Systems Benedito Oliveira Sep. 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 Electric and Hybrids Vehicles in Public Transportation Systems Benedito Oliveira Sep. 2013

2 Volvo Buses Discuss the basics of Electric and Hybrid Buses in the application for public transport system. In this presentation electrification is considered as the use of Electrical Energy as Traction force. The source of electrical energy is the Traction Battery and the way to charge it can be from the vehicle itself (Hybrid) and or from the Grid (Plugin Hybrid, Electrical Vehicle). Objective

3 Volvo Buses Why Electromobility? Hybrid and Electrical Powertrain concepts Application Volvo Hybrid B215RH Agenda Benedito Oliveira 17-Jun-13

4 Volvo Buses Way to electro mobility City requests: Silent Fuel and energy efficient Low or zero emissions Sustainable energy sources City requests: Silent Fuel and energy efficient Low or zero emissions Sustainable energy sources

5 Volvo Buses Why Electro mobility? The main driver for electro mobility is Energy Efficiency Linked to energy efficiency is: Low to no tailpipe emissions Low interior and exterior noise Low CO 2 emissions Low LCC Diesel 10 Km 48 Kwh Hybrid 14.2 Km Plug-in Hybrid 25 Km Full electric (Normal bus) 34 Km Full electric (Light bus) 44 Km Drive distance with same available energy * * * Technical limitations -Range -Charge Frequency -Charging time

6 Volvo Buses The Conventional Drivetrain Advantage: -High range Drawbacks: - Low average efficiency, 10..20 % - No regenerative braking Diesel Engine AMT gearbox < 30 % ave 98 % Energy Storage +- El. mach Power Electronics 95 % 98 % 90x90 % Idea to solution: - An electric vehicle

7 Volvo Buses Energy use in city bus cycle 7

8 Volvo Buses The Electric Vehicle Energy Storage +- El. mach Power Electronics 95 % 98 % 90x90 % Energy Storage +- El. mach Power Electronics 95 % 98 % Advantage: - High average efficiency - Regenerative braking at Traction motor power - Packaging Drawbacks: - Low range - High cost / kW tractive power

9 Volvo Buses Hybrid drives are drives that have at least two different primer movers and energy accumulators Neumeyer, H. – Automotive transmissions The Hybrid Vehicle PlugIn- Charging

10 Volvo Buses Regenerative Braking The battery is loaded using the Electrical Motor operating as generator (engine brake). Diesel Engine Efficiency Diesel engine is switched off in idle (traffic light, bus stops). The diesel engine will only operate when it is more efficient. The Hybrid Vehicle

11 Volvo Buses Advantage: - High range Drawbacks: - Low ICE drive efficiency - High drive system cost / kW - All installed power NOT available on the wheels Diesel Engine El. mach Power Electronics >30% 95 % Energy Storage +- El. mach Power Electronics 95 % 98 % The Series Hybrid Vehicle Idea to solution: - Connect ICE to wheels mechanically – The Parallell Hybrid

12 Volvo Buses Energy Storage +- El. mach Diesel Engine Power Electronics Gearbox The Parallell Hybrid Vehicle Advantage: -High ICE drive efficiency due to hybrid control - ICE downsizing - Low system cost / kW tractive power - High commonality with non-hybrid drive train - Redundancy if electric drive malfunction Drawbacks: - Lower max regenerative braking due to lower EM rating than series

13 Volvo Buses T rpm Enhanced Performance with Parallel Drive Diesel Both Together Energy Storage +- El. mach Diesel Engine Power Electronics Gearbox Electric Drive

14 Volvo Buses How can Hybrid Vehicle help to improved efficiency and fuel consumption? (Volvo Hybrid) 14 FUEL SAVING

15 Volvo Buses 7700 Diesel: 8.5 l/h 7700 Hybrid: 6.0 l/h Saving: 2.5 l/h 7700 Diesel: 8.5 l/h 7700 Hybrid: 6.0 l/h Saving: 2.5 l/h 7700 Diesel: 13.7 l/h 7700 Hybrid: 9.6 l/h Saving: 4.1 l/h 7700 Diesel: 13.7 l/h 7700 Hybrid: 9.6 l/h Saving: 4.1 l/h Diesel Hybrid ~ 35%

16 Volvo Buses –Hybrid (++) Flexibility in application, no need of specific infraestructure. Except for plug-in hybrids. (+) Drive range: »Full Hybrid: 35% more than a normal diesel bus »Plug-in Hybrid: 60% more than a normall diesel bus (+) Noise: Smaller ICE, Start-stop functionality (-) Weight: Need for Battery, Electrical motor, Control System –Electric (++) Zero emission (++) Noise free (--) Weight: Need for more battery than a hybrid vehicle, control system and bigger Electric Motor. (--) Need for infraestruture, charging stations (-) Drive range, need to recharge or have the grid. What are the major benefits and contraints in application? Benedito Oliveira 17-Jun-13

17 Volvo Buses Optimised public transports by 2020 -Daily travel Critical time ~60 minutes 30-90 km/h Bus 40-250 km/h Train -600 km/h Air Train Express bus +bio fuel BRT Hybrid bus Feeder Hybrid bus + plug-in Down town Hybrid bus Fully electric School bus Fully electric

18 Volvo Buses Summary Future technology parallel development –Hybrid bus + Plug-in hybrids –Diesel –Fully electrical buses Drivers –Noise –Energy efficiency –Synergies with cars and trucks –Environmental impact less than Euro VI already today –Less dependency on oil –Low infra structure requirement

19 Volvo Buses The path towards Green Efficiency 2010Future City Bus Market Hybrid Diesel Hybrid Plug-in Fully electric

20 Volvo Buses Volvo Hybrid - Curitiba

21 Volvo Buses VOLVO B215RH Li-ion ESS Electrical Motor Volvo I-Shift Transmission Volvo Engine 5L D5F 215HP Electrical power steering * ESS Energy Storage System, incl Battery and control system

22 Volvo Buses Parallel integrated design Battery Li-ion 120 KW I-Shift gear box 12 gears Electrical machine generator/motor 800 Nm, 120 kW / 160 Hp D5 Engine 800 Nm, 160 kW /215 Hp Power electronics AC/DC converter

23 Volvo Buses Characteristic Highly Efficient Diesel Engine combined with Electrical Motor Together or separate Traction Diesel and Electrical coordinated to improve performance and decrease environmental impact T rpm Concept Volvo Hybrid Operation modes 0 – 20km/h: Eletric Após 20 km/h: Hybrid Diesel engine off during stops

24 Volvo Buses 24 2010-01-27 Summary – Hybrid & Electric Vehicle EM ICE ESS ICE Fuel Cell Proportional source of driving power Proportional reliance on ESS Proportional source of propulsion Conventional Electric Series Hybrid Full Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid Source of propulsion ICE EM Parallel Hybrid Volvo Hybrid Volvo Plug-in Hybrid

25 Volvo Buses Parallel Hybrid - Efficiency at constant speed: 0.43 * 0.98 42% 15% lower fuel consumption than serial hybrid ~43% ~95% ~98% ~95% ~81% ~43% ~98% ~95% ~81% Serial Hybrid - Efficiency at constant speed: 0.43 * 0.95 * 0.95 *0.95*0.98 36% Comparing Technologies - At constant speed


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