Presentation on theme: "Jefferson Alters the Nation’s Course"— Presentation transcript:
1 Jefferson Alters the Nation’s Course Chapter 6, Section 3
2 ObjectivesTo identify some of the significant changes brought about during the early years of Jefferson’s presidencyTo provide examples of the Federalists’ declining powerTo summarize the importance of the Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark expedition
3 Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson Virginia Dem.-Rep. 73 52.9% Aaron Burr New York Dem.-Rep %John Adams Massachusetts Federalist %
4 “Revolution of 1800” Jefferson defeats Adams, 73 to 65 electoral votes Aaron Burr delivers New York, Federalist stronghold, to JeffersonSouth and West are Jeffersonian, growing in power and populationJefferson and Burr tie. Federalists attempt to give Pres. to Burr, delaying action in the House of Reps for months, taking 35 ballots in all.HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE:Power had successfullychanged hands in the new republic.
5 Federalists Lose Power HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE:Federalists provide period of conservatism that allows for consolidation of revolutionary gains. However, Federalists are unable to adapt aristocratic ideals into appeal to the “common” majority of voters.
6 Jefferson Administration Virtues practiced are Frugality, Simplicity, Equality – avoid monarchical appearancesPolitical Moderation and Restraint -employed to ease Federalist fearsReduced the size of govt. and pursued “free trade”Increases Southern influence on govt., esp. Virginia’sDid not employ excessive patronage,many Federalist appointees retain positions
7 The Struggle for the Court Judiciary Act of 1801 = Adams tries to pack the court with Federalist judgesMidnight judges= the Federalist appointees, including John Marshall as Chief JusticeKEY FACT: Appointments were signed but not delivered.DEBATE: Are the appointments of Adams now binding on Jefferson?
8 Marbury v. MadisonHISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Establishes the principal of JUDICIAL REVIEW = the ability of the Court to declare an act of Congress or the President unconstitutional. “ The critical importance of Marbury is the assumption of several powers by the Supreme Court. One was the authority to declare acts of Congress, and by implication acts of the president, unconstitutional if they exceeded the powers granted by the Constitution. But even more important, the Court became the arbiter of the Constitution, the final authority on what the document meant. As such, the Supreme Court became in fact as well as in theory an equal partner in government, and it has played that role ever since.”
9 Jefferson Administration Was the incident of the “midnight justices”and Marbury vs. Madisona Failure or Success? WHY?For Jefferson? WHY?For the Federalists? WHY?For the Supreme Court? WHY?
10 Federalists Continue to Lose Power Hamilton attacks Adams, splitting Federalist PartyAdams/Federalists lose election of 1804Hamilton seeks to prevent Burr from becoming Gov. of New York in 18047/11/1804 Hamilton fights Aaron Burr in a duel, and is killed.Burr kills Federalist leadership, and his own careerFederalists fade
11 Jefferson and Louisiana : Population in the Ohio Valley grows. Daniel Boone clears the Wilderness Road. 1800: Spain cedes trans-Mississippi/LA to France 1802: US loses right to deposit in New Orleans 1803: Jefferson sends envoys to Napoleon 4/30/1803: Frances sells LA for $15 million Why did Napoleon sell? What was the constitutional issue at hand for Jefferson?
12 Louisiana PurchaseFrom Marshall Sprague, So Vast and Beautiful a Land: Louisiana and the Purchase. Boston, Little, Brown and Co., P (Courtesy Special Collections Division, University of Washington Libraries.)
14 Louisiana Purchase of 1803 Avoided war with France and Spain Vast tracts open for farming for growing populationWestern expansion favors Jefferson & Republicans, gains loyalty of Western USFederalists decline further, esp. after Burr’s plot of secession failsEstablishes practice of “acquisition by purchase”Establishes power of the President to make treaties
15 Meriwether Lewis & William Clark Seeking a Northwest Passage and boundaries of new LA territory: 2 and ½ year journey, 50 men in Corps of DiscoveryNavigated the Missouri, crossed the Rockies, went down the Columbia River to the Pacific and backReceived help from many Native Americans during their journey, esp. Sacajawea, a Shoshone woman who served as interpreter and guideFirst Americans to cross the North American continent.Demonstrated the viability of an overland passage to PacificOpened the West to settlement