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Jefferson Alters the Nation’s Course

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1 Jefferson Alters the Nation’s Course
The United States expanded its borders during Thomas Jefferson’s administration.

Bitter fight between Adams (Federalist) and Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) They made wild accusations about each other Adams – a tool of the rich! Jefferson- a dangerous revolutionary And supporter of France JEFFERSON – AN ATHEIST BENT ON DESTROYING ORGANIZED RELIGION!

3 ELECTORAL DEADLOCK Jefferson defeated Adams by 8 electoral votes
BUT – Jeff’s running mate – Aaron Burr – had the same number of electoral votes as Jeff! So, House of Representatives has to choose! And choose for 6 days and 35 ballots, until they chose Jeff Hamilton actually talked some Federalists into casting blank vote to give Jeff the win

4 Why did Hamilton do it? Despite their political differences, Hamilton knew that Jefferson was the better man for the job Much more qualified than Burr Hamilton did it for the good of the country! This deadlock pointed out a flaw in Constitution – as a result 12th amendment was passed, requiring separate ballots be cast for President and VP

Tried to extend hand of peace to his opponents “Every difference of opinion is not a difference of principle.” “We are [Democratic] Republicans; we are all Federalists.” But Jeff planned to restore the republican ideals of 1776 against the strong-government policies of Federalism He replaced some Federalist officials w/ Dem-Reps By 1803, government is evenly divided between the 2 parties.

6 Keep it simple, Stupid! Jefferson tried to cutback on government
He appealed to the common man (even wearing slippers and work clothes in the office!) He reduced the size of the army Halted an expansion of the navy Cut back on costs of govt social functions

Eliminated all internal taxes Reduced the influence of the National Bank Favored free-trade rather than government-controlled trade and tariffs Jeff figured free trade was the answer because America was busy producing the raw materials and food that Europe needed

Location of White House is key to growing power of Southerners Jefferson James Madison James Monroe – all from Virginia New England and Federalists are declining in power in national political life Federalists also lose power because Jefferson is moderate Because Feds don’t want to appeal in political campaigns to “common man” And because as the nation expanded, the new states tended to vote “D-R” – for farmers

Federalists are very important in the courts, however. Adams appointed John Marshall as Chief Justice; Marshall served for 30 years his decisions strengthened power of SC and of federal government

10 THE “MIDNIGHT JUDGES” As Adams is about to leave office, he pushes through Congress the Judiciary Act of 1801 He adds 16 new federal judges! All the new judges are – you guessed it – Federalists. (Adams hopes to influence future federal judiciary decisions this way.) As he signed their appointments late on his last day in office they are called the Midnight Judges.

Furious! – Jeff argues that some of the documents authorizing the appointments had not been delivered by the time Adams left office, they were invalid THIS LED TO ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT COURT CASES OF ALL TIME: MARBURY v. MADISON

12 MARBURY v. MADISON 1803 This creates the case of Marbury v Madison which is one of THE MOST IMPORTANT COURT DECISIONS in U.S. history to-be-judge Wm. Marbury never got his papers from J. Madison he takes it to court saying the Judiciary Act of 1789 required those papers to be delivered Chief Justice John Marshall says that Judiciary Act of 1789 DID NOT give the Supreme Court power to issue a demand that those papers be served In others words: the Constitution is the law of the land not the Supreme Court

13 You would have thought that John Marshall being a Federalist would have supported that decision and not have gone against it But John Marshall establishes the most important principle of judicial review which became a cornerstone of American gov’t. Judicial review means the Judicial branch is equally important as the Executive and Legislative branches and this establishes yet another check and balance to the system You would have thought Jefferson would have been happy since it got rid of the Federalist judge Marbury. But this was a warning to Jefferson and Congress that the Supreme Court does have the power to affect them.

14 Marbury vs. Madison

15 Westward ho! Through the Cumberland Gap – a narrow passage through the Appalachians near where KY, TN, and VA meet “The Wilderness Road” becomes a major route for migration Daniel Boone led the clearing of a road from VA to KY Population of Ohio: 1800: 45,000 1810: 231,000


1800, Napoleon persuades Spain to return Louisiana to France. [Spain had gotten it from France in 1762.] Secret Transfer of Louisiana to France worries Jeff – a strong French presence mid-continent may force US into an alliance w/ GB Jefferson offers to buy New Orleans and western Florida from the French

18 “Let’s Make a Deal” Jefferson sends Monroe to negotiate w/ Napoleon
Napoleon had tried to reconquer France’s most important island colony (Saint Dominque, now Haiti), but failed So Napoleon wants to sell all of Louisiana! Monroe and Livingston (US ambassador to France) close the deal for $15,000,000

19 Is the purchase constitutional?
Jefferson actually doubted that the government could legally buy Louisiana Especially for a “strict constructionist” – since no where in the Constitution does it say a president can buy land But Senate ratified the treaty. Louisiana Purchase more than doubled the size of the US


21 LEWIS AND CLARK “The Corps of Discovery” – Jefferson appoints Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the new territory- use scientific discovery From St. Louis to the Pacific Information about unknown plants and animals Learn as much as possible about Native Americans as they travel through the region 2 years and 4 months resulting in acquisition of invaluable info about the western territories Sacajawea serves as interpreter and guide

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