Presentation on theme: "Jefferson Alters the Nation’s Course"— Presentation transcript:
1Jefferson Alters the Nation’s Course The United States expanded its borders during Thomas Jefferson’s administration.
2JEFFERSON WINS ELECTION! Bitter fight between Adams (Federalist) and Jefferson (Democratic-Republican)They made wild accusations about each otherAdams – a tool of the rich!Jefferson- a dangerous revolutionaryAnd supporter of FranceJEFFERSON – AN ATHEIST BENT ON DESTROYINGORGANIZED RELIGION!
3ELECTORAL DEADLOCK Jefferson defeated Adams by 8 electoral votes BUT – Jeff’s running mate – Aaron Burr – had the same number of electoral votes as Jeff!So, House of Representatives has to choose!And choose for 6 days and 35 ballots, until they chose JeffHamilton actually talked some Federalists into casting blank vote to give Jeff the win
4Why did Hamilton do it?Despite their political differences, Hamilton knew that Jefferson was the better man for the jobMuch more qualified than BurrHamilton did it for the goodof the country!This deadlock pointed out a flaw in Constitution – as a result 12th amendment was passed, requiring separate ballots be cast for President and VP
5JEFFERSON AS PRESIDENT Tried to extend hand of peace to his opponents“Every difference of opinion is not a difference of principle.”“We are [Democratic] Republicans; we are all Federalists.”But Jeff planned to restore the republican ideals of 1776 against the strong-government policies of FederalismHe replaced some Federalist officials w/ Dem-RepsBy 1803, government is evenly divided between the 2 parties.
6Keep it simple, Stupid! Jefferson tried to cutback on government He appealed to the common man (even wearing slippers and work clothes in the office!)He reduced the size of the armyHalted an expansion of the navyCut back on costs of govt social functions
7JEFFERSONIAN ECONOMICS Eliminated all internal taxesReduced the influence of the National BankFavored free-trade rather than government-controlled trade and tariffsJeff figured free trade was the answer because America was busy producing the raw materials and food that Europe needed
8SOUTHERNERS DOMINATE WHITE HOUSE Location of White House is key togrowing power of SouthernersJefferson James MadisonJames Monroe – all from VirginiaNew England and Federalists are declining in power in national political lifeFederalists also lose power because Jefferson is moderateBecause Feds don’t want to appeal in political campaigns to “common man”And because as the nation expanded, the new states tended to vote “D-R” – for farmers
9JOHN MARSHALL AND THE SUPREME COURT Federalists are very importantin the courts, however.Adams appointed John Marshall as Chief Justice; Marshall served for 30 yearshis decisions strengthened powerof SC and of federal government
10THE “MIDNIGHT JUDGES”As Adams is about to leave office, he pushes through Congress the Judiciary Act of 1801He adds 16 new federal judges!All the new judges are – you guessed it – Federalists. (Adams hopes to influence future federal judiciary decisions this way.)As he signed their appointments late on his last day in office they are called the Midnight Judges.
11JEFFERSON’S REACTION TO ADAMS’ “PACKING THE COURT” Furious! – Jeff argues that some of the documents authorizing the appointments had not been delivered by the time Adams left office, they were invalidTHIS LED TO ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT COURT CASES OF ALL TIME:MARBURY v. MADISON
12MARBURY v. MADISON 1803This creates the case of Marbury v Madison which is one of THE MOST IMPORTANT COURT DECISIONS in U.S. historyto-be-judge Wm. Marbury never got his papers from J. Madisonhe takes it to court saying the Judiciary Act of 1789 required those papers to be deliveredChief Justice John Marshall says that Judiciary Act of 1789 DID NOT give the Supreme Court power to issue a demand that those papers be servedIn others words: the Constitution is the law of the land not the Supreme Court
13You would have thought that John Marshall being a Federalist would have supported that decision and not have gone against itBut John Marshall establishes the most important principle of judicial review which became a cornerstone of American gov’t.Judicial review means the Judicial branch is equally important as the Executive and Legislative branches and this establishes yet another check and balance to the systemYou would have thought Jefferson would have been happy since it got rid of the Federalist judge Marbury. But this was a warning to Jefferson and Congress that the Supreme Court does have the power to affect them.
15Westward ho!Through the Cumberland Gap – a narrow passage through the Appalachians near where KY, TN, and VA meet“The Wilderness Road” becomes a major route for migrationDaniel Boone led the clearing ofa road from VA to KYPopulation of Ohio: 1800: 45,0001810: 231,000
17THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE 1800, Napoleon persuades Spain to return Louisiana to France.[Spain had gotten it from France in 1762.]Secret Transfer of Louisiana to France worries Jeff – a strong French presence mid-continent may force US into an alliance w/ GBJefferson offers to buy New Orleans and western Florida from the French
18“Let’s Make a Deal” Jefferson sends Monroe to negotiate w/ Napoleon Napoleon had tried to reconquer France’s most important island colony (Saint Dominque, now Haiti), but failedSo Napoleon wants to sell all of Louisiana!Monroe and Livingston (US ambassador to France) close the deal for $15,000,000
19Is the purchase constitutional? Jefferson actually doubted that the government could legally buy LouisianaEspecially for a “strict constructionist” – since no where in the Constitution does it say a president can buy landBut Senate ratified the treaty.Louisiana Purchase more thandoubled the size of the US
21LEWIS AND CLARK“The Corps of Discovery” – Jefferson appoints Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the new territory- use scientific discoveryFrom St. Louis to the PacificInformation about unknown plants and animalsLearn as much as possible about Native Americans as they travel through the region2 years and 4 months resulting in acquisition of invaluable info about the western territoriesSacajawea serves as interpreter and guide