Presentation on theme: "The Evolution Of Humankind Classifications of Humans Kingdom: animal Phylum: chordate (animals with backbones) Class: mammal (with hair, female makes."— Presentation transcript:
The Evolution Of Humankind
Classifications of Humans Kingdom: animal Phylum: chordate (animals with backbones) Class: mammal (with hair, female makes milk) Order: primate (apes and monkeys) Family: mankind, (with extinct Neanderthals, etc.) Genus: Homo Species: sapiens
Hominids The human family is defined as Hominids. Hominids are characterized by several features, such as their manner of movement. We have an upright position which is known as bipedal. A large reorganized brain is another feature. Use and construction of tools are notable characteristics of Hominids. Climatic changes may have been responsible for the development of the characteristics of Hominids. These climatic changes began 24 million years ago.
Australopithecus afarensis Our most ancient ancestor is Australopithecus afarensis. They lived roughly million years ago. Males and females show a considerable difference in size, varying from meters (34- 57) in height and from kg ( lbs) in weight. This bipedal ancestor had a brain capacity that fluctuated from cc, less than one-third of modern humans.
Australopithecus africanus inhabited the earth roughly million years ago. The characteristic difference between the Australopithecus afarenis and africanus is the height and brain capacity. The height of the africanus is 1.4 m (47)and the brain capacity is approximately cc but was still not capable of speech. Smaller incisor teeth and a slightly flatter face are also noted. The afarensis has a height of 1.2 m (4) and a cranial capacity of cc. Sticks, and stones were most likely used to gather food by the Australopithecus africanus.
The Australopithecus robustus dates from approximately million years ago. The difference between Australopithecus robustus and both afarensis and africanus becomes apparent in the comparison of their structure. As well as a larger bone structure, the Australopithecus robustus also had a larger cranium capacity ranging from cc, housed by an large skull. The species name "robustus" was chosen to describe the skull, jaw, and teeth, which were much more dense and thicker than what was seen in previous species
Australopithecus robustus As is characteristic of most of the Australopithecus, robustus had a flat face. It's muscular jaw and flat, almost molar-like teeth seemed to imply that the Australopithecus was likely a vegetarian
One distinct difference that set the Australopithecus boisei apart from previous species was its massive jaws. The teeth in the back were very large as compared to its front canines, which were quite small. The surfaces of these back teeth were also very worn, which gave clues that this species ate coarse food and used these large back teeth to grind. With such large jaws one would think that the jaw region would protrude, but actually it was tucked in.
Homo habilis (also known as "handy man") used primative stone tools. The flat face and large molars of the Homo habilis resemble the Australopithecus lineage. The brain size of the Homo habilis is about 700 cc (larger than the Australopithecus). An "apelike" (long arms and a small body) body structure was characteristic of the Homo habilis. (Wicander and Monroe 1993)
Homo erectus The first species to migrate from Africa during the Pleistocene glacial period was Homo erectus. This species was widely disbursed in the time frame of million years ago. They inhabited the regions of southeastern and eastern Asia until approximately years ago. Europe, India, China and Indonesia have all yielded evidence of Homo erectus. Characteristics of Homo erectus are a brain capacity of cc, a large face and thick skull, brow ridges and a forehead that recedes. Being able to construct tools, such as handaxes, was within the capacity of Homo erectus. Homo erectus, according to some studies, made use of fire and occupied caves.
The evolution of Homo sapiens commenced approximately years ago. The Homo sapiens structure is similar to that of the Homo erectus, yet Homo sapiens skulls were slightly rounder and larger. Their teeth and jaws were noticeably smaller, which corresponds with, they're fragile face. The Homo sapiens brain capacity averaged an impressive cc, surprisingly the same size of today's humans.
The first Neanderthal traits appeared in Europe as early as 350,000 years ago. By 130,000 years ago, full blown Neanderthal characteristics had appeared. Neanderthals became extinct in Europe approximately 24,000 years ago. Neanderthals had many adaptations to a cold climate, such as large braincase, short but robust builds, and large noses traits selected by nature in cold climates. Their brain sizes have been estimated to be larger than modern humans, although such estimates have not been adjusted for their more robust builds. On average, Neanderthal males stood about 1.65 m tall (just under 5' 5") and were heavily built, and muscular due to their physical activity and robust bone structure. Females were about 1.53 to 1.57 m tall (about 5'– 5'2"). Neanderthals had a simple language and used stone tools
Cro-Magnon Approximately years ago, Cro-Magnons, moved into the Neanderthal region of what is today known as France. Within the time from years ago the evolution of art and technological innovations becomes apparent. Cro-Magnons used paints composed from manganese and iron oxides to paint the walls and ceilings of their caves through-out what is today called France and Spain. Many of these beautiful paintings have been preserved and can still be seen. During the seasonal migration of herds, the Cro-Magnons used cunning hunting skills and tools to kill their prey. They managed to develop extremely advanced tools for hunting (possibly even a bow and arrow). The Cro-Magnon dwelled primarily in caves or rock shelters in groups.