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Ancient History Chapter One I

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1 Ancient History Chapter One I
The Origins of Humankind

2 Pre-Homo Sapiens Our understanding of the origins of our species are constantly in flux as new evidence and information come to light. Primarily any evidence about our early ancestors comes from archaeology. In this case science and History are linked.

3 Evolution Charles Darwin Theory of Evolution
Gradual change over many generations Widely held notion that all life is related and has descended from a common ancestor. Complex creatures evolve from more simplistic ancestors over time. Natural Selection (Survival of the Fittest) = Random genetic mutations occur and the “good” aspects are kept to aid survival Failure to evolve in response to the environmental changes can and often does lead to extinction.

4 Geographical Origins 20th Century archaeological discoveries in Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and Southern Africa indicate that humankind originated in Africa.

5 Palaeolithic Age/Old Stone Age
Started around 2 million years ago and ended around 8000 B.C.E Nomadic = moving from place to place hunting and gathering Hominids = Any member of the family of two-legged primates that includes all humans.

6 Australopithecine 4.4 to 2.8 millions years ago
Some teeth were human-like Approximately 1.2 m tall Molars like chimpanzee Walked upright Arm bone structure different than ape There are many types of australopithecines that continued to evolve over millions of years. Characterized by heavily brow ridges, large skull and slopping forehead Walked slightly bow-legged

7 Lucy: Example of Australopithecine
Discovered in Ethiopia in 1974 by Donald Johanson The skeleton was 40% complete About 3.5 million years old 25-30 year old female Differences determined through bone structure

8 Homo Habilis The first true humans Found in East Africa Nomadic
Created basic stone stools Main diet was fruits & vegetables Built campfires but did not know how to make fire

9 Homo Erectus Existed between 1.8 million years ago and 300,000 years ago First to look like people *No Chin *Low long Skull * Large Molars * Thick brow ridges * Protruding Jaw • Skeleton more robust than modern humans which indicates great strength • Found in Africa, Asia and Europe (about 1 million years ago began to leave Africa because the Ice Age produced bridges allowing for travel) • Tool making skills were considerably improved: Stone axes and knives • Had fire making skills

10 Homo Sapiens First appeared about 500,000 years ago
Skull characteristics of both Homo Erectus & Modern Humans Skeleton and teeth are smaller than Homo Erectus, but larger than Modern Humans Large brow ridges, receding forehead and chin Used tools

11 Homo Sapiens Neanderthalis
Existed between 230,000 and 30,000 years ago. Europe and the Middle East Named after the Neander Valley in Germany Height Average = 5’6’’ *Protruding jaw * Receding forehead * Short, Solid * Short Limbs * Mid-face area protruded, probably adaptation to cold Extraordinarily strong by today’s standards Skeletons showed they lived extremely hard lives Great Hunters First to bury their dead Lived in caves and tents Known as cavemen Made clothes from animal skin and used animal tusks of animals to make needles Stone axes

12 Homo Sapiens Sapiens Replaced the Neanderthals
Cro-Magnon People (Modern Man) First appeared about 195,000 years ago Made more delicate & efficient tools Carved fishhooks, harpoons & needles Began to build shelters out of animal skin Paintings left on cave walls

13 The New Stone Age/Neolithic Age
6000 B.C.E. to 3500 B.C.E. Planted seeds & started farming Farming is known as the Neolithic Revolution Kept herds of animals (cattle & sheep), which added meat to the diet Used cattle & oxen to pull plows Built sturdy houses & villages started to form Decorative pottery, dishes & ornaments Weaved cloth from plant fiber & animal hair Polished stone Invention of the wheel & axels and later simple carts Specialization of labour = Separation and assignment of jobs according to the skills of individuals Markets and trading Economy, $, class system More leisure time There was a form of government, which regulated customs and rules for protection Culture developed Stonehenge was built

14 Key Components of Civilization
Centralized Government Occupational Specialization Agricultural Intensification State Religion Class Structure Development of Writing & Science Merchants & Trade

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