Presentation on theme: "Ancient History Chapter One I"— Presentation transcript:
1Ancient History Chapter One I The Origins of Humankind
2Pre-Homo SapiensOur understanding of the origins of our species are constantly in flux as new evidence and information come to light.Primarily any evidence about our early ancestors comes from archaeology.In this case science andHistory are linked.
3Evolution Charles Darwin Theory of Evolution Gradual change over many generationsWidely held notion that all life is related and has descended from a common ancestor.Complex creatures evolve from more simplistic ancestors over time.Natural Selection (Survival of the Fittest) = Random genetic mutations occur and the “good” aspects are kept to aid survivalFailure to evolve in response to the environmental changes can and often does lead to extinction.
4Geographical Origins20th Century archaeological discoveries in Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and Southern Africa indicate that humankind originated in Africa.
5Palaeolithic Age/Old Stone Age Started around 2 million years ago and ended around 8000 B.C.ENomadic = moving from place to place hunting and gatheringHominids = Any member of the family of two-legged primates that includes all humans.
6Australopithecine 4.4 to 2.8 millions years ago Some teeth were human-likeApproximately 1.2 m tallMolars like chimpanzeeWalked uprightArm bone structure different than apeThere are many types of australopithecines that continued to evolve over millions of years.Characterized by heavily brow ridges, large skull and slopping foreheadWalked slightly bow-legged
7Lucy: Example of Australopithecine Discovered in Ethiopia in 1974 by Donald JohansonThe skeleton was 40% completeAbout 3.5 million years old25-30 year old femaleDifferences determinedthrough bone structure
8Homo Habilis The first true humans Found in East Africa Nomadic Created basic stone stoolsMain diet was fruits & vegetablesBuilt campfires but did not know how to make fire
9Homo ErectusExisted between 1.8 million years ago and 300,000 years agoFirst to look like people*No Chin *Low long Skull * Large Molars* Thick brow ridges * Protruding Jaw• Skeleton more robust than modern humans which indicates great strength• Found in Africa, Asia and Europe(about 1 million years ago began to leave Africa because the Ice Age produced bridges allowing for travel)• Tool making skills were considerably improved: Stone axes and knives• Had fire making skills
10Homo Sapiens First appeared about 500,000 years ago Skull characteristics of both Homo Erectus & Modern HumansSkeleton and teeth are smaller than Homo Erectus, but larger than Modern HumansLarge brow ridges, receding forehead and chinUsed tools
11Homo Sapiens Neanderthalis Existed between 230,000 and 30,000 years ago.Europe and the Middle EastNamed after the Neander Valley in GermanyHeight Average = 5’6’’*Protruding jaw * Receding forehead* Short, Solid * Short Limbs* Mid-face area protruded, probably adaptation to coldExtraordinarily strong by today’s standardsSkeletons showed they lived extremely hard livesGreat HuntersFirst to bury their deadLived in caves and tentsKnown as cavemenMade clothes from animal skinand used animal tusks of animalsto make needlesStone axes
12Homo Sapiens Sapiens Replaced the Neanderthals Cro-Magnon People (Modern Man)First appeared about 195,000 years agoMade more delicate & efficient toolsCarved fishhooks, harpoons & needlesBegan to build shelters out of animal skinPaintings left on cave walls
13The New Stone Age/Neolithic Age 6000 B.C.E. to 3500 B.C.E.Planted seeds & started farmingFarming is known as the Neolithic RevolutionKept herds of animals (cattle & sheep), which added meat to the dietUsed cattle & oxen to pull plowsBuilt sturdy houses & villages started to formDecorative pottery, dishes & ornamentsWeaved cloth from plant fiber & animal hairPolished stoneInvention of the wheel & axels and later simple cartsSpecialization of labour = Separation and assignment of jobs according to the skills of individualsMarkets and tradingEconomy, $, class systemMore leisure timeThere was a form of government, which regulated customs and rules for protectionCulture developedStonehenge was built
14Key Components of Civilization Centralized GovernmentOccupational SpecializationAgricultural IntensificationState ReligionClass StructureDevelopment of Writing & ScienceMerchants & Trade