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THE HOMINIDS © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Australopithecus afarensis © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Australopithecus afarensis 3.9 – 2.9 Ma Climate changing. Antarctic ice cap advance 5 Ma Distribution: Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania Cranial capacity: 380 – 450 cm 3 Height: 1.07m Bipedal (footprints 3.6 Ma old) /climber U-shaped dental arcade but reduced canines Arboreal / terrestrial herbivore © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Australopithecus africanus © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Australopithecus africanus 3 – 2.25 Ma Cooling of climate reduced rainfall Further advance of Antarctic ice Appearance of Arctic ice 2.4Ma Development of scrubland and savannah Forest cover retreats © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Australopithecus africanus Distribution: Southern and Eastern Africa Cranial capacity: 500 cm 3 (Chimp = 400cm 3 ) Bipedal 20 – 35 kg Rounder skull Parabolic dental arcade Longevity: 40 years maximum Scavenger of bone marrow/brain cases Used simple tools © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Australopithecus (Paranthropus) robustus © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Australopithecus (Paranthropus) robustus 2 – 1 Ma Cooling of climate reduced rainfall Development of scrubland and savannah Forest retreats Distribution: S. Africa Diet: Roots and tough fibrous vegetable matter Cranial capacity: 500 cm 3 (Chimp = 400cm 3 ) Bipedal 40 –70 kg Sexual dimorphism (males twice as bulky as females) Large cheek teeth Heavy muscular skull © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Homo habilis Homo habilis - the handy man © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Homo habilis Ma E. Africa Scavenging significant part of the diet Cranial capacity: 600 – 800 cm 3 Height: 1.20 – 1.35m Simple fashioned tools – choppers (Oldowan culture) © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Homo erectus Homo erectus – the upright man © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Homo erectus 1.8 to 0.5 Ma 0.9 Ma beginning of the Pleistocene ice age Oscillations between cold and warm periods Spread out of Africa (1.6Ma) throughout the old world Scavenging to hunting Use of a home base © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Homo erectus Cranial capacity: 850 – 1100 cm 3 (H. sapiens = 1350 cm 3 ) Use of fire Height 1.55 to 1.8m Extended childhood 1st molar at 4.6 years old (H. sapiens = 5.9y) Greater longevity 52 years Speech? (Brain says: yes; spine says: no) Improved tools: Hand axes (Acheulian culture) © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Homo neanderthalensis © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Homo neanderthalensis to years ago Europe, Middle East, into Central Asia Evolved from H. erectus populations perhaps via H. heidelbergensis, then became extinct Adapted to the ice-age conditions of temperate zone Large nose may have warmed cold air The enigma of its extinction is not explained © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Homo neanderthalensis Cranial capacity: 1400 cm 3 (H. sapiens = 1350 cm 3 ) Brow ridge, long low skull Height: 1.67m Stocky build Improved sophisticated tools (Mousterian culture) Sometimes buried their dead Made simple jewellery © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Homo sapiens © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Homo sapiens From years ago to present Originating in Southern Africa then went worldwide Reached Europe about years ago Cooling of the climate during the last glacial period from about a led to their predominance over other species (e.g. H. neanderthalensis) Omnivore Alters environment Domestication of species, farming © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Homo sapiens Cranial capacity: 1350 cm 3 (range 1000 to 2000 cm 3 ) 20% of the body’s energy consumption for 5% of body mass Speech Art Extensive tool kit including new materials (bone, ivory, antler) Symbolic thought 1st molar tooth 5.9 years old Longevity 66 years © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
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Fossils of the family Hominidae. Australopithecus afarensis 3.9-3my cc Chimp-like skull with human-like teeth post cranial skeletal structure.
THE CHANGING TREES OF HUMAN EVOLUTION © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS.
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