Presentation on theme: "A5 Countries Readiness for Methyl Bromide Phase-out by 1st January 2015: Addressing the Challenges of Sustainability Methyl Bromide Phase- out in the Postharvest."— Presentation transcript:
A5 Countries Readiness for Methyl Bromide Phase-out by 1st January 2015: Addressing the Challenges of Sustainability Methyl Bromide Phase- out in the Postharvest sector Challenges relating to susbtability and the way forward UNEB OzonAction: Webinar 7 May2013 Mohamed El Hassan Shazali Commodity Storage and Pest Management E. mail :
- Agriculture is the main economic activity in Sudan. - In agriculture MB is mainly used in durable commodity disinfestations, for structural fumigation and QPS fumigations; -Durable commodities include food grains cereals, oil seeds and legumes staple food grains in Sudan are sorghum, millet and wheat; -Typical storage facilities vary in stanadards.
Port Sudan concrete silo, capacity 50,000 tons :
Squat concrete silo, 10 bins; each 10,000 tones-
Metal silos : corrugated or plain steel sheets ; each tons. Lack air-tightness
Poor pest management: …… Food security at risk !
-The status of phosphine fumigation in Sudan: Current situation: - Phosphine is the only fumigant identified, at the present,as MB alternative in postharvest fumigation;. -It is economic, viable and available option as an alternative to MB; - It does not leave residues on the stored commodities; - Phosphine is now in routine commercial use in the post harvest;
- The use of phosphine is vital to the grain industry in meeting its market requirements for insect-free grain. - Disinfestations of durable commodities will continue to depend heavily on fumigation with phosphine; - It seems unlikely that another fumigant which is both effective and easy to apply will become available to replace MB in the near future; - Alternative fumigants (other than Phosphine) are more expensive, and some are not as widely accepted by markets.
- - The situation is now of more phosphine as methyl bromide is being phased-out; - At the same time there are more substandard fumigations and no counter selection pressure as provided by MB; - Resistance has developed in insects in Sudan; - Furthermore,Sudan is at risk of importing resistant insets;
Malpractices of phosphine fumigation
Phosphine ash on the surface of sacks, safety …
The CLF fumigation technique, efficient …even distribution etc...
CLF is a means of obtaining rapid and uniform distribution in the grain bulk in silos….prevents development of resistance
1- Challenges /Constraints:- 1- Project achievements need to be consolidated and extended; 2- Improper phosphine fumigation procedures; malpractices i.e dosages, sealing, exposures etc… - will lead to development of resistance in insects ; 3- Complete control cannot be achieved where there is resistant insects ;
4- 4- There is a need to address challenges associated with technology transfer, safety of personnel and monitoring insect resistance ; 5- Investment in equipments and instruments,for the proper use of phosphine, is rather expensive/prohibitive ; 6- Some trading partners insist on MB as treatment measure before shipment ; 7- Lack of knowledge on fumigation requirement by Pest control officers and stakeholders;
8- Controlling all possible route for illegal importation of MB; 9- Choice of Fumigants is limited, 10- If phosphine fumigation is to be ineffective, a grave situation will be created.
4- The Way forward : Measures to ensure sustain ability 1- There is a need to identify,evaluate and demonstrate MB alternative, C/A,M/a, CO2, low O2 etc… 2- There is a need to tap on IPM. : Use of different control methods as possible. 3- There is an urgent need to rectify phosphine fumigation, as used in Sudan, to avoid catastrophic consequences i.e. resistance,safety etc … 4- Development of fumigation techniques that can prevent selection for resistance and at the same time overcome resistance CLF ;
5- Training is needed to raise awareness, build capacities and capabilities to achieve high standards of competence.; 6- Develop and implement national management plans for phosphine resistance. We need to Manage the development of resistance; 7- Fumigations must be carried out as a part of a technological package of integrated pest management (IPM), no in isolation as a cosmetic treatment; Hence, a holistic approach is needed;
8- To investigate efficient prophylactic technologies such as grain protectants which are contact insecticides mainly pyrethroids e.g. permethrin, deltamethrin etc..., 9- Technical assistance is needed to enhance adoption of TEC alternative technologies in different situations : To enhance sustainability of MB Alternative