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United Nations Environment Programme Regional Office for Africa, Montreal Protocol Compliance Assistance Programme Readiness of A5 Countries for MB Phase-out.

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Presentation on theme: "United Nations Environment Programme Regional Office for Africa, Montreal Protocol Compliance Assistance Programme Readiness of A5 Countries for MB Phase-out."— Presentation transcript:

1 United Nations Environment Programme Regional Office for Africa, Montreal Protocol Compliance Assistance Programme Readiness of A5 Countries for MB Phase-out by 1st Jan 2015: Addressing the challenges of sustainability Webinar on Methyl Bromide 7th May,

2 United Nations Environment Programme Regional Office for Africa, Montreal Protocol Compliance Assistance Programme YearNon-Article 5 countriesArticle 5 countries 1991Consumption/ production baseline Freeze average -Consumption/ production Baseline % reduction % reduction 2002-Freeze % reductionReview of reductions 2005Phase-out with provision for CUEs 20% reduction 2015Phase-out with provision for CUEs Methyl Bromide Phase-Out Schedule as agreed by Parties in 1997 Critical and emergency uses may be permitted after phase-out if they meet agreed criteria. Quarantine and pre-shipment (QPS) uses and feedstock are exempt from reductions and phase-out

3 United Nations Environment Programme Regional Office for Africa, Montreal Protocol Compliance Assistance Programme Four Main Categories of MB uses under the Montreal Protocol MB UsesStatus under the Montreal Protocol Non-QPS fumigant uses (Soil, Post Harvest, Structures) Subject to production and consumption phaseout schedules of Articles 2 and 5, trade and licensing controls of Article 4, and data reporting requirements of Article 7. Critical Use Exemptions can be authorised by the MOP for specific uses that meet the criteria in Decision IX/6 and other relevant decisions QPS fumigant usesExempted from reduction and phase-out schedules. Subject to Article 7 data reporting requirements Laboratory and analytical uses Subject to production and consumption phaseout schedules of Articles 2 and 5 except for the specific Critical Use Exemptions under Decision XVIII/15. Subject to data reporting under Annex II of the Sixth Meeting of the Parties Feedstock used in the manufacture of other chemicals Exempted from phase-out schedule under Article 1. Subject to Article 7 data reporting requirements

4 United Nations Environment Programme Regional Office for Africa, Montreal Protocol Compliance Assistance Programme Global Context Methyl Bromide Phase-out schedule for developing countries is 1 st January 2015; Several countries have accelerated their methyl bromide phase- out ahead of the deadline; Methyl bromide is the only sector where the reversibility of ODS use is possible and nearly effortless.; Compared to the industrial sector, their sustainability is less guaranteed; Unlike CFCs and halons, methyl bromide production facilities will not close down; they will continue for Critical Use Exemptions and Quarantine and Pre-Shipment (QPS); & Production and imports for QPS use could easily be diverted to non-QPS uses.

5 United Nations Environment Programme Regional Office for Africa, Montreal Protocol Compliance Assistance Programme MB Consumption trends in Article 5 countries 1991–2011 Year

6 United Nations Environment Programme Regional Office for Africa, Montreal Protocol Compliance Assistance Programme Baselines and trends in MB consumption in Non-A 5 and A 5 regions, 1990 – 2011 (ODP tonnes) Year

7 United Nations Environment Programme Regional Office for Africa, Montreal Protocol Compliance Assistance Programme MB QPS trends in Article 5 countries 1991–2011 Year

8 United Nations Environment Programme Regional Office for Africa, Montreal Protocol Compliance Assistance Programme MB QPS trends in Non-A 5 and A 5 regions, 1990 – 2011 (ODP tonnes) Year

9 United Nations Environment Programme Regional Office for Africa, Montreal Protocol Compliance Assistance Programme Key issues 1.Technical Sustainability Issues of Alternative Technologies Alternative technologies/chemicals including issues related to efficacy of alternatives, pest resistance to the alternatives, emerging new pests, cost of alternatives, commercial availability of alternatives in smaller countries, bans on certain chemical alternatives, difficulty in the registration of new chemicals, unsuitable infrastructure for some alternatives such as phosphine, and lack of cost effective alternatives for high moisture fresh dates. Training needs including issues related to emergence of new farmers since the completion of MB projects, lack of knowledge and capacity on application of new chemicals and new technologies, especially for countries that did not report use of MB, lack of knowledge in making on- farm alternative materials, lack of networking on sourcing of alternative materials, and lack of ongoing awareness programs. There is also need for capacity building of Customs Officers on MB Experts/expertise and technology to monitor the development of pest resistance. Lack of appropriate experts to carry out monitoring activities and to collaborate with partners. These experts/ expertise are very scarce.

10 United Nations Environment Programme Regional Office for Africa, Montreal Protocol Compliance Assistance Programme Key issues contd. 2. Technical Assistance Issues Awareness raising - Continuous Awareness raising, access of new developments for old and new market players and building confidence in acceptance of new technologies, raising awareness on risk of reversibility to MB uses and encouraging policy and/or awareness measures to avoid it happening. Training Programs - Development and maintenance of a sustainable practical training program and coordinated efforts to transfer the alternative technologies. Training of Ozone Officers on available alternatives to QPS uses and alternatives for treating wood pallets (ISPM-15). Documentation - Development and updating of technical manuals, toolkits, etc on new technologies. Technology Transfer Programs -Lack of Exchange Programms/ study tour to countries with advanced technologies for information exchange, materials, varieties, rootstocks etc Guidance and assistance to Ozone Officers on MB reporting requirements, Clarification on Procedures for application of Critical Uses Nominations and QPS application of methyl bromide (MOP Dec XXIII/5), and handling of identified unwanted MB cylinders as well as waste by-products materials from MB alternatives

11 United Nations Environment Programme Regional Office for Africa, Montreal Protocol Compliance Assistance Programme Key issues contd. 3.Regulatory and Institutional Issues Continued availability of MB because of continued production of MB for exempted QPS uses: Production and imports for QPS use could easily be diverted to non-QPS, risk of illegal markets for MB, increased demand of MB for QPS in some countries. Reversibility of MB use is quite possible and nearly effortless. Compared to the industrial sectors, the sustainability of the MB phase out is less guaranteed by changing the equipment used but rather depends on the availability of cost-effective technically, economically and commercially (TEC) feasible alternatives, since there is no single replacement. Such alternatives have not yet reached all countries and all regions. Lack of proper tracking systems and institutional coordination (NOUs and Agricultural Ministries) for efficient licensing and control of illegal trade National regulatory restrictions that limit uses of the alternatives, and lack of incentives to adopt clean technologies Lack of market-access pressure as driving forces of good agricultural practices Lack of Partners for co- funding

12 United Nations Environment Programme Regional Office for Africa, Montreal Protocol Compliance Assistance Programme Highlights of CAPs response to the challenges Trainings on alternative technologies, Information dissemination, Documentations, etc

13 United Nations Environment Programme Regional Office for Africa, Montreal Protocol Compliance Assistance Programme


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