Presentation on theme: "Code of Practices and Guidelines for Postharvest Management in Cereals and Groundnuts Ministry of Agriculture Food Security and Cooperatives Post-harvest."— Presentation transcript:
Code of Practices and Guidelines for Postharvest Management in Cereals and Groundnuts Ministry of Agriculture Food Security and Cooperatives Post-harvest Management Services Section Prepared and Presented by: Margaret Natai
The Role of the Ministry of Agriculture To ensure that food security in the country is attained through increased production and productivity. This has necessitated the establishment of the National Food Security Department in year 2000.
National Food Security Department The Department has the mandate to formulate policies,programmes and strategies to improve food security and to coordinate food security issues in the country.
Postharvest Management in Tanzania In Tanzania the issue of concerned in post harvest management is high crop postharvest loses. (the issue of food safety was not very much emphasized} Postharvest losses are still high despite of various efforts to reduce the losses which have been undertaken.
In the post-harvest system, losses occur when the processes/activities in the system are not properly done, at harvesting, pre- drying/drying, pre-processing/processing, transportation and storage. Major factors causing losses include temperature, moisture, and pests of stored products, spillages during handling and transportation
Postharvest Management of Cereal and Groundnuts Cereals are widely grown in the country with major producing areas being the southern highlands. (maize, rice, sorghum…} Groundnuts are also widely grown in the country especially the central zone.
The majority of famers growing the crops are small holder farmers using rudimentary tools Most of the cereals/groundnuts grown are used for human consumption The postharvest management of cereals/groundnuts involves various steps from harvesting to the storage.
Steps in Postharvest management system Harvesting Ensure the crop has reached the required maturity Threshing Remove the cobs and separate the seeds Cleaning Ensure the crop is free from dust and other dirty Sorting
Grading Drying Dry the crop to the required moisture content, e.g for maize is 13% Application of insecticide before storage (recommended insecticides] Storage in a cool, well ventilated, moisture free structure/facility. Common facilities used Vihenge, Bin, Silo, Sacks
Improved Post-Harvest Management Technologies are necessary at all levels in order to minimize crop losses during post- harvest processes, and therefore to increase supply and availability of safe food.
Reduction of postharvest loses In developing countries including Tanzania, losses in processing, storage and handling tend to be rather high because of poor facilities, infrastructures and frequently inadequate knowledge of methods to care for crops properly. Adoption of appropriate Post-harvest technologies will help the majority of farmers to reduce crop loses and hence have sufficient and safe nutritious food.
Efforts to reduce postharvest losses Postharvest Management Services Section under National Food Security Department has a mandate to provide technical backstopping on postharvest management to Local Government Authority staff all over the country.
Currently the following have been done: Dissemination of Postharvest management technologies for various food crops; cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables, oilseeds, spices and roots and tubers. The technologies include harvesting, drying, threshing, cleaning, sorting, grading, packaging, storage and processing.
……. Preparation and dissemination of various guidelines on postharvest management which include; Guideline on improved storage structures at household and community level (Improved traditional storage structures} Guideline on proper crop handling for storage; proper drying to the required moisture content
Training extension workers at the LGA level on Postharvest management practices Training of artisans on construction of improved storage structures Stakeholders meeting on processing and blending of various crops
Training of Artisans on construction of improved storage structure
Gaps in Postharvest management of food crops Lack of current data on postharvest losses for various crops Inadequate adoption of postharvest technologies by farmers Inadequate involvement of private sector in postharvest management Less weight given to the safety issues in postharvest management e.g improper application of pesticides and aflatoxins in maize and groundnuts
Inadequate research in postharvest management Inadequate linkage of stakeholders involved in postharvest management issues. Since post harvest system is comprised of many processes, interventions to improve it will have to be done through net working and collaborating with other institutions and professionals at different levels.
What need to be done? To identify constraints and problems in the existing post harvest systems, particularly those common to our crop commodities in the country and guide improvements.*include aflatoxins To identify institutions where post-harvest programs can be carried out and establish collaborations/partnerships. To identify the stakeholders in the post-harvest system and establish partnerships in fighting food loss and safety.
To ensure participation of the private sector in the development of the post-harvest improvement strategies and dissemination of the technologies. To improve and adapt post-harvest techniques and technologies and train the end users in application, through training of trainers
Conclusion As we have seen the link between Agriculture and aflatoxins, crop postharvest management contributes much on controlling the risks of aflatoxins PHM also helps to reduce crop losses and hence ensures increase availability of safe food