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1 CFIA-ACIA Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) Training International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) CFIA-ACIA.

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Presentation on theme: "1 CFIA-ACIA Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) Training International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) CFIA-ACIA."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 CFIA-ACIA Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) Training International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) CFIA-ACIA

2 Stages Stage 1: Initiation Stage 2: Pest Risk Assessment –Step 1: Pest Categorization –Step 2: Assessment of the Probability of Introduction and Spread –Step 3: Impacts –Step 4: Overall Assessment of Risk –Step 5: Uncertainty Stage 3: Pest Risk Management

3 Pest risk analysis Stage 1 (initiation) asked: –What bad thing can happen? Stage 2 (pest risk assessment) asked: –How likely is it to happen? –How bad will it be? –Does it matter? Is the risk acceptable? Stage 3 (pest risk management) asks: –What can be done about it? Overall pest risk Response to risk Pest identity

4 Stage 3: Pest Risk Management –Identifying options –Evaluating options –Selecting options CFIA-ACIA Conclusions of pest risk assessment Risk acceptable? PRA ends Risk unacceptable? PRA continues Stop

5 Conclusion of pest risk assessment Level of risk can be expressed in various ways –Reference to existing phytosanitary requirements –Indexed to estimated economic losses –Expressed on a scale of risk tolerance –Compared to the risk presented by the same pest at a different time –Compared with the level of risk accepted by other countries –Compared with the level of risk accepted for other pests

6 Acceptability of risk Acceptable level of risk is established by the NPPO When might risk be acceptable? –Level of risk is so low that specific treatment is not cost effective –Level of risk is no greater than that already experienced –Cost of mitigation is excessive compared to the benefit When is risk unacceptable? –Pest incursion would result in economic, environmental or social consequences

7 Risk is unacceptable Western corn rootworm in DE –Spreading in nearby countries –High potential impact due to crop losses over large area, increasing maize production –Natural & man-made spread –Unacceptable risk Next steps: –Stage 2: Pest risk management –Identify appropriate mitigation measures, if any

8 Pest risk management Measures can be implemented –to the growing crop –to the harvested commodity –to associated materials Measures can be implemented –at origin or in the exporting country –at the point of entry –within the importing country or invaded area A structured analysis of measures that can be recommended to minimize risks posed by a pest or pathway

9 Pest risk management Consider all pathways –Traded plants or plant products –Natural spread of the pest –Entry with human travellers –Vehicular transport –Associated materials Identify points at which mitigation measures might be applied Identify possible mitigation measures at each point Assess each for effectiveness, efficiency, feasibility …. Select appropriate measure(s)

10 Mitigation points Nursery or Orchard Packing House ContainersPlantation Port of Arrival Country of Origin Country of Destination In Transit

11 Mitigation points Place Crop Commodity Pathway Country of Origin Country of Destination In Transit Storage Facility Container(s) Transport (ship, train, truck …) Commodity Pathway Place Other

12 Country of origin Place/area of production measures –General or pest-specific surveillance –Historic data –Official measures to maintain pest-free status Crop measures –Treatment of the crop, field or place of production –Growing plants under protected conditions to prevent infestation of the crop –Specifying time of harvest –Phytosanitary certification

13 Country of origin Commodity Measures –Inspection or laboratory tests –Prohibition of parts of the host –Restricting the composition of a consignment –Pre-shipment quarantine –Specified conditions for preparing the consignment –Treatment for removal of pest(s) Pathway measures –Targeted inspections, publicity and fines or incentives –Measures for machinery, modes of transportation, or packaging

14 In transit Commodity Measures –Storage conditions may be specified Temperature, packaging, separation from other specified plants etc. –Fumigation or other chemical treatment on board ship –Ship inspection before loading or at destination

15 Country of destination Commodity Measures –Inspection of consignments at the point of entry –Treat the consignment to kill living pests –Contain imported consignments to limit spread of introduced pests –Post-entry quarantine –Limit use, distribution, or timing of consignments

16 Country of destination Prohibition of a specific commodity from specific source –Only if no treatments or inspection techniques are available and effective in reducing risk to acceptable levels –A measure of last resort –IPPC principles of necessity, science-based, managed risk and minimal impact

17 Other measures Document –Phytosanitary Certificates –Import permits –IPPC stamp for SWP Phytosanitary Certificates –Official assurance that specified import requirements are met –Confirms that risk management measures have been taken –Only for regulated articles Educate –Educate & inform travellers, importers, industry, government or public

18 Selecting appropriate measures Phytosanitary measures should be: –cost-effective & feasible –no more trade-restrictive than necessary –not imposed if existing measures are effective Different measures with the same effect should be accepted as alternatives For pests under official control in PRA area, import measures should be no more restrictive than measures applied within PRA area Cost-effectiveness Feasibility Minimal Impact Equivalence Non-discrimination

19 Evaluating options Evaluate each option for: –Effectiveness –Efficiency –Cost effectiveness –Feasibility –Reproducibility –Potential negative social, economic or environmental consequences CFIA-ACIA

20 Pest risk analysis Stage 1 (initiation) asked: –What bad thing can happen? Stage 2 (pest risk assessment) asked: –How likely is it to happen? –How bad will it be? –Does it matter? Is the risk acceptable? Stage 3 (pest risk management) asks: –What can be done about it? Overall pest risk Response to risk Pest identity

21 Selecting options Option AOption BOption C Effective Feasible Efficient LimitationsNoYes Conclusion AcceptDo not accept Accept

22 Risk management example Nursery Packing House ShipPlantation Port of Arrival Country of Origin Country of Destination

23 Risk management example Nursery Packing House ShipPlantation Port of Arrival Country of Origin Country of Destination Level of risk

24 Conclusion of Stage 3 Risk mitigation measures have been: –Identified –Evaluated –Selected Mitigation measures to reduce risk to acceptable level are selected, or No mitigation measures are available

25 Conclusion of PRA Pest risk management conclusion: –selection of one of more options or series of options, OR –no suitable mitigation measures available PRA ends –options form the basis of phytosanitary regulations or requirements

26 Costs and Benefits The cost-benefit analysis for each of the minimum measures found to provide acceptable security may be estimated. Those measures with an acceptable benefit-to-cost ratio should be considered. How is this done? What does cost-benefit mean?

27 Costs and Benefits Costs = costs of measure(s) applied –Industry costs: determined from additional costs / increased labour costs –Government costs: staff costs to apply and monitor measures Benefits = avoiding the losses that the pest would otherwise cause

28 Costs and Benefits: example A risk assessment of Pest x suggests that unless measures are taken it is very likely to be carried on imported host plants from the country of origin to the PRA area where it is very likely to transfer to crops and cause yield losses of $100 ha -1 year -1. Based on spread elsewhere it is likely that the entire crop area of 10,000 ha would be infested within 5 years.

29 Four options are considered 1. Source plants from a pest free area But exporting country cannot establish a PFA 2. Parts of plants (e.g. leaves) prohibited But will add cost ($10,000 year -1 ) 3. Inspect crop at origin, apply appropriate chemical treatment if needed, inspect consignments before export and certify pest free But will add cost ($40,000 year -1 ) 4. Post entry quarantine But will add cost ($300,000 year -1 ) Costs and Benefits: example

30 1. PFA2. Prohibit plant parts 3. Inspection & treatment 4. Post entry quarantine Effective (partly) Feasible x Efficient x (partly) No Cost ($000) N/A ConclusionN/AApply Too costly

31 Costs and Benefits: example In the short term (5 years) the cost of applying measures will be –Option 2= $50,000 (partly effective) –Option 3 = $200,000 (partly effective) –Option 4 = $1,500,000 (fully effective) –Option 2 & 3 = $250,000 (fully effective) The expected cost (5 years) of not applying measures are estimated to be 10,000 infested ha at a cost of $100/ha = $1,000,000

32 Costs and Benefits: example CostsBenefitsRatio Option 250,0001,000,000 1:20 Option 3200,0001,000,000 1:5 Option 41,500,0001,000,000 1:0.7 Option 2 & 3 combined 250,0001,000,000 1:4

33 Pest Risk Management Risk mitigation measures are: –Identified –Evaluated –Selected Pest risk is acceptable PRA ends Pest risk assessment Pest risk management Pest/pathway


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