Presentation on theme: "2012 FORESTRY (B/C) 2012 FORESTRY (B/C) by KAREN LANCOUR - National Bio Rules Committee Chairman modified by Jacqueline L. Klimkowski – New York State."— Presentation transcript:
2012 FORESTRY (B/C) 2012 FORESTRY (B/C) by KAREN LANCOUR - National Bio Rules Committee Chairman modified by Jacqueline L. Klimkowski – New York State Forestry Supervisor
Event Rules – 2012 Each team (of 2 students) may bring one (only one) 8.5 x 11 two sides page of notes that contain information in any form from any source Up to two commercially published field guides. The recommended guides are: The Audubon Society Field Guide to Trees National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Trees of North America One copy of the New York State Tree List
The Competition Content: Taxonomic Scheme of the 2012 Official Science Olympiad Tree List is used in competition Taxonomic Scheme of the 2012 Official Science Olympiad Tree List is used in competition Identification, anatomy & physiology, reproduction, habitat characteristics, ecology, conservation, biogeography Identification, anatomy & physiology, reproduction, habitat characteristics, ecology, conservation, biogeography observation, inferences, data and diagram analysis Process Skills: observation, inferences, data and diagram analysis The test may be a PowerPoint presentation or actual specimens The test may be a PowerPoint presentation or actual specimens
The Scoring The teams with the highest number of correct answers, correctly spelled, will be the winners. The teams with the highest number of correct answers, correctly spelled, will be the winners. Selected questions will be used as tiebreakers Selected questions will be used as tiebreakers
Field Guide All specimens on the National List are represented in the National Audubon Society Field Guides to Trees (Eastern and Western Regions)
Taxonomy Official National List Family Genus species (Scientific name) and Common name Page numbers for Audubon Field Guides are on the Official List
FAMILIES OF TREES Learn the Family characteristics and then species!! General arrangement of guides Tree lists are arranged by families. The families have general characteristics for all of the species within the family. Pay attention to these characteristics!!
TREE SHAPES Overall tree shapes include: pyramidal conical columnar spreading vase-shaped broad rounded.
LEAVES leaves can be needle- shaped, scale- shaped, or broad and flat
LEAVES Broad leaves can be simple or compound and are arranged along the branch in an opposite, alternate, or whorled pattern.
Leaf & Flower Parts Flowers sepals which are usually green and leaf-like petals with are brightly colored stamens (the male reproductive structures) pistals (the female reproductive structures) Most tree flowers are bisexual some are only one sex two sexes can appear on separate trees or on different locations on the same tree.
Cones & Fruit Simple fruit can be dry or fleshy If the fruit develops from several pistals, it is an aggregate
Major types of forests Northern Forests – spruces, firs, pines, tamarack, paper birch, quaking aspen Pacific Coast Forest – western hemlock, redwood, Douglas fir, western red cedar Western Mountain Forests – ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine, Engleman spruce, Douglas fir. Northeastern Deciduous Forests – eastern hemlock, American beech, red oak, basswood, sugar maple beech, maples Central Forests – tuliptree, sycamore, shagbark hickory, white oak, Ohio buckeye Southeastern Forest – Loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, longleaf pine, mockernut hickory, live oak. Subtropical Forest – red mangrove, black mangrove, cabbage palmetto Unforested Areas – desert, grassland, tundra
Tree Ecology Growth requirements Environmental impacts of trees Interspecies relationships Role within their ecosystems Economic impact Uses for the various parts of a tree Mode of dispersal of their seeds
Benefits to the Environment Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide, water and sun energy to produce oxygen and carbohydrates Prevent erosion Improve Air Quality – absorb harmful pollutants Remove CO2, ozone, small particulate matter Help with global warming Keep us cool Trap rainwater Help keep water quality high
Challenges to Forest Populations Fragmented Forests Harvesting Issues Exotic Species Atmospheric Threats
Preparing for Competition Field Guide Study Binder Power Point Slides Flash Cards Actual Specimens Timer – practice timed stations
GENERAL TIPS – FIELD GUIDES General tips on arrangement are: 1. The Audubon Field Guide is arranged according to the family arrangement within the Orders of Trees and Shrubs. 2. Gymnosperms are followed by angiosperms with dicots first and then monocots. 3. Species are arranged alphabetically within the family by scientific name. 4. Color plates are arranged by leaf color key, flower color key, fruit and cone key, and autumn leaf key. 5. Each species listing has plate numbers for photos within the color plates and a text section explaining description, habitat, and range of the species.
Field Guide Study the organization of the field guide Note that the page numbers of the Audubon Field Guides are on the Official Tree List Tab the field guide with very small useful tabs so it is not cluttered and can be easily used Notice how the Family characteristics come first and then the species arrangement is alphabetical Practice using the Field Guide to identify specimens or photos Practice under timed conditions to prepare for competition
Study Binder The most effective resources are the ones produced by the students. The process of producing the resources is a major learning tool. Have a copy of the rules in your binder Have a copy of the lists (birds, fossils if applicable) in your binder Prepare and organize materials by major topic divisions. Place materials from many different sources into your topic divisions Reduce the size of pictures where possible to get more information on a page. Color code information to help you locate or emphasize key items. Put pages in sheet protectors – two per protector to save space. Use tabs to separate sections. Label tabs so items can be located with ease.
Power Point Slides Make power point slides for each species Make them so information can they can be used for practice Prepare them so they can be reorganized to make practice competitions for study
Flash Cards Make flash cards with pictures on one side and information on the back Use the flash cards to make up sample competitions Use the flash cards to learn the trees
Actual Specimens Collect and preserve leaves and tree parts as stems and flowers Note that preserved specimens may not look exactly like live specimens – texture and color changes may occur Use specimens to learn the trees Note that leaves from different trees or parts of a tree may vary
Collecting Leaves Only collect leaves on a sunny day and after dew has dried. Collect good leaves, leaves that have not been damaged by insects, diseases or the sun. Always collect more than one leaf. Collect a small branch full. That way, you will be sure to get a good representative of the tree. When removing specimens from the tree, it is best to use pruning shears so that you minimize your impact on the tree. If you are working with a compound leaf, try to get the whole leaf. When removing a specimen from a tree that has opposite arrangement, try to remove two or four leaves with their position on the stem intact. Press the leaves within an hour after collecting or before they dry out.
Pressing Leaves It is important to remove as much moisture from the leaves as quickly as possible Do not fold the leaf. Place each leaf, or several leaves between 2 layers of absorbent paper as paper towel or newspaper. Press the leaf or leaves between absorbent papers in a large book or leaf press. Place extra weight on the large book or tighten the leaf press strap to squeeze out the moisture. Allow several days for pressing. If time permits, change the paper towels on the leaves after the first couple days of pressing.
Mounting Leaves Mount the leaves and place in sheet protector of a photo album or between acetate or cellophane sheets. Another option is to laminate the leaves. Label the specimens with scientific name, common name, date of collection, name of collector, location, notes about identification. Arrange leaves by species within families.
Timer Use your training materials to prepare sample stations for study Use the timer to do the practice stations Use your team work skills to improve your efficiency Learn the trees so you will limit your dependence on resources
Preparing Competition Resources Learn the trees so resources will be used as little as possible. The most successful teams use very few resources in competition. Use notes for material you want to use that is not in the Field Guide or on the Tree List Check the event parameter so you know what is allowed in the competition. Since the events are timed, organization of materials is essential for the most effective use of the materials during the competition. Organize materials on each page to maximize available space Cut and paste items to organize materials more effectively on a page. Write notes in margins or with pictures. Color code information to help you locate or emphasize key items. Use front and back of the page. Place the page in a protective sleeve or laminate it so it wont get wet or damaged.
Competition Success Dried leaves may look different from live leaf or a photo of the leaf - its texture may change with drying Try to identify the specimen to the family and then decide what species it is Use common sense when answering not identification questions Be careful to spell Scientific names and common names correctly Work as a team and use your teamwork skills to finish the requested tasks