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Structure and Function In Different Environments.

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Presentation on theme: "Structure and Function In Different Environments."— Presentation transcript:

1 Structure and Function In Different Environments

2 Introduction  Plants have various structures that help them to survive in different environments.  In this presentation, we will look at the adaptations in the structures of plants, including roots, stems, and leaves of plants in different environments.  We will compare the structure and function of plant parts from the following environments : desert, wetlands, forest, and tundra.

3 Desert- A Definition  A desert is a region that receives an extremely low amount of precipitation (rain or snow), less than enough to support growth of most plants.  Plants lose a lot of moisture through a process called transpiration. (Sort of like a person losing water through perspiration.)  Deserts can be hot or cold.

4 Wetlands- A Definition  A wetland is an area between a land-based and a water-based ecosystem.  Wetlands include bogs, fens, marshes, and swamps.  Although there are many different types of wetlands, they have three physical characteristics in common.

5 Wetlands- A Definition  Water – Wetlands are covered with shallow water for at least some time during the year.  Soil – The soil often has little or no oxygen.  Plants – Wetlands provide habitat for “water- loving” aquatic plants (hydrophytes). These plants are adapted to living in saturated (really full of water) soil all or part of the year.

6 Tundra- A Definition  The word "tundra" usually refers only to the areas where the subsoil is frozen all the time (permafrost).  The plants in this environment include shrubs, sedges, grasses, mosses, and lichens.

7 Forest- A Definition  A forest, or woods, has many trees.  There will usually be an upper tree layer (canopy) and the understory.  Other plants, such as shrubs, vines, flowers, and mosses, are found in forests.  Forests can include rainforests, boreal forests, and conifer forests.

8 Roots  The four major functions of roots are:  Absorption of water and nutrients (food)  Anchoring the plant to the ground  Storage of food and nutrients  To prevent soil erosion  Buttress roots are large roots on all sides of a tree with a wide base or a tree with shallow roots.

9 Roots: Dry Environmen t  Some desert plants have long taproots that go all the way to the water table, if present.  Some desert plants have adapted to the weather by having wide- spreading roots, to absorb water from a greater area of the ground.

10 Roots: Wetland Environment  Emergent – Rooted in soil, but plant parts extend above the water Submergent – The entire plant lives underwater.

11 Roots: Wetland Environment  Floating – Leaves float on the surface, while roots hang down into the water or are planted in the soil  Riparian – Found along the edges of wetlands or other water bodies

12 Roots: Tundra Environment  There are no deep root systems in the plants (vegetation) of the arctic tundra.  Many plants have rootlets (rhizoids) instead of roots.

13 Stems  A stem is the part of the plant that usually grows above the ground and holds the leaves.  The stem has four main functions:  Supports and elevates the plant, leaves, flowers, and fruits  Transports fluids between the roots and the shoots  Stores nutrients  Produces new living tissue

14 Stems  Some plants have thorns on their stems for protection.  Some plants have stems that wrap around other plants or structures. This provides a way to support the plant as it grows.

15 Stems  The stems of many desert plants feel “waxy”. Some desert plants store water in their leaves, roots, and stems.  The stems of tundra plants are often very short. Plants grow close to the ground in this environment. Tundra plants do not have woody stems.

16 Stems  The stems of many aquatic plants are flexible.  Flexible stems move easily in water currents.

17 Leaves  The shape and structure of leaves varies considerably from plant to plant.  The main purpose of leaves is to produce food (energy).  Another purpose of a leaf is to get carbon dioxide from the air (atmosphere) to make sugar and release oxygen.

18 Leaves: Dry Environment (desert)  Desert plants often have small, spiny leaves.  They are designed to reduce water loss in the plant.

19 Leaves: Temperate Environment (forest)  Some trees have broad leaves that absorb water and sunlight.  Some trees have “needles” for leaves. The needles’ shape and waxy coating help the plant conserve water during the cold winter and in hot climates.

20 Leaves: Tundra Environment  Tundra plants have very tiny leaves.  There are usually many leaves on one stem.  Sometimes the leaves appear to be “wooly”.

21 Leaves: Wetland Environment  Leaves are usually round and flat or long and thin.  The flat leaves float on the surface.  The thin leaves move easily when water flows.

22 Special Structures…  Carnivorous plants have adapted to living in the low- nutrient areas of wetlands (bogs and fens) in a special way.  They have structures that allow the plant to trap and digest insects. The insects provide the necessary nutrients that they cannot obtain from the soil.


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