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Question of the Day: How can you tell one tree from another? What characteristics do you use to identify a tree? How can you tell one tree from another?

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Presentation on theme: "Question of the Day: How can you tell one tree from another? What characteristics do you use to identify a tree? How can you tell one tree from another?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Question of the Day: How can you tell one tree from another? What characteristics do you use to identify a tree? How can you tell one tree from another? What characteristics do you use to identify a tree?

2 Dendrology What is dendrology? What is dendrology? Dendrology is the scientific study of trees and other woody plants. Dendrology is the scientific study of trees and other woody plants. Trees vs. Shrubs Trees vs. Shrubs Tree = one, main woody stem Tree = one, main woody stem Shrub = small, woody, branched Shrub = small, woody, branched from base from base

3 2 Major Tree Divisions Deciduous Deciduous aka: Hardwoods & Broadleaf aka: Hardwoods & Broadleaf Sheds leaves seasonally Sheds leaves seasonally Broad leaves Broad leaves Hardwood Hardwood Examples: Oaks, Maples, Tulip Poplars, etc. Examples: Oaks, Maples, Tulip Poplars, etc. Conifers aka: Softwoods & Evergreen Bear cones Needle or scale-like leaves Softwood Examples: Pines, Cedars, Firs, etc.

4 Tree Identification Trees may be identified by various means including: Trees may be identified by various means including: Leaves Leaves Bark Bark Tree Shape Tree Shape Flowers and Fruit Flowers and Fruit Etc. Etc. Let’s focus on leaves Let’s focus on leaves

5 Leaves Leaves are often the easiest/best way to identify a tree. Leaves are often the easiest/best way to identify a tree. Needles and scale of evergreens are also considered leaves. Needles and scale of evergreens are also considered leaves. Some questions to consider when identifying leaves: Some questions to consider when identifying leaves: Simple or compound? Simple or compound? Margins smooth or rough? Margins smooth or rough? Arrangement on twig opposite or alternate? Arrangement on twig opposite or alternate? Veins pinnate (like a feather) or palmate? Veins pinnate (like a feather) or palmate?

6 Important Vocab: Important Vocab: Blade = whole leaf Blade = whole leaf Petiole = stem Petiole = stem Margin = outer edge Margin = outer edge Leaf Parts

7 Leaves– Simple or Compound Simple leaves only have one leaf blade. Simple leaves only have one leaf blade. Compound leaves are made up of several separate leaflets attached to a common leaf stem. Compound leaves are made up of several separate leaflets attached to a common leaf stem.

8 Simple Source: Ohio State University– Biology of Horticulture Website

9 Compound Leaves Important to remember: Important to remember: Compound leaves have leaflets which are attached to the leaf stalk (not the twig) Compound leaves have leaflets which are attached to the leaf stalk (not the twig) Leaflets can be attached to the leaf stalk in several ways: Leaflets can be attached to the leaf stalk in several ways: Pinnately Compound Pinnately Compound Bipinnately Compound Bipinnately Compound Palmately Compound Palmately Compound

10 Compound Leaves (Cont.) Pinnately Compound Pinnately Compound The leaflets are attached across from each other The leaflets are attached across from each other Resembles a “feather” Resembles a “feather” Ex: White Ash Ex: White Ash

11 PINNATEPINNATEPINNATEPINNATE Source: Ohio State University– Biology of Horticulture Website

12 Compound Leaves (Cont.) Bipinnately or Twice Compound Bipinnately or Twice Compound The primary leaflets are divided into secondary leaflets, also written 2-pinnate The primary leaflets are divided into secondary leaflets, also written 2-pinnate Ex: Honeylocust Ex: Honeylocust

13 Source: Ohio State University– Biology of Horticulture Website Bipinnate

14 Compound Leaves (Cont.) Palmately Compound Palmately Compound The leaflets are arranged in a pattern that looks like fingers on the palm of a hand The leaflets are arranged in a pattern that looks like fingers on the palm of a hand Ex: Horse Chestnut Ex: Horse Chestnut

15 PALMATEPALMATEPALMATEPALMATE Source: Ohio State University– Biology of Horticulture Website

16 Quick Check for Understanding: Simple? Compound?

17 Leaves– How arranged on twig? (Leaf Arrangement) Opposite Opposite When leaves are arranged directly across from each other on the twig. When leaves are arranged directly across from each other on the twig. Alternate Alternate When leaves stagger up the twig and are NOT located directly across from each other. When leaves stagger up the twig and are NOT located directly across from each other. Whorled Whorled 2 or 3 leaves attached at the same point on the twig and “whorl” around the twig (think of circle) 2 or 3 leaves attached at the same point on the twig and “whorl” around the twig (think of circle)

18 Leaf Arrangement (Continued) Alternate Opposite Whorled

19 Leaf Arrangement (Cont.) Most trees have alternate branching. Most trees have alternate branching. Think to yourself “MAD Horse” (Maple, Ash, Dogwood, and Horse Chestnut) to remember those with opposite branching. Think to yourself “MAD Horse” (Maple, Ash, Dogwood, and Horse Chestnut) to remember those with opposite branching.

20 Leaf Arrangement (Continued) It is important to remember… It is important to remember… The opposite vs. alternate vs. whorled arrangement refers to the way the LEAVES are arranged on TWIG, not the way the leaflets are arranged on the leaf stalk. The opposite vs. alternate vs. whorled arrangement refers to the way the LEAVES are arranged on TWIG, not the way the leaflets are arranged on the leaf stalk.

21 Quick Check for Understanding: Alternate? Opposite? Whorled? A B C

22 Leaves– Margins The margin of the leaf is the leaf edge. The margin of the leaf is the leaf edge. 3 major types: 3 major types: Entire Margin Entire Margin Lobed Margin Lobed Margin Toothed Margin Toothed Margin

23 Leaves– Margins (Cont.) Entire Margin = smooth edges Entire Margin = smooth edges Ex: Ex: Eastern Eastern Redbud Redbud

24 Leaves– Margins (Cont.) Lobed margin = projections that shape the Lobed margin = projections that shape the edge of the leaf edge of the leaf Ex: White Ex: White Oak Oak

25 Leaves– Margins (Cont.) Toothed Margin = saw-like edge on the leaf Toothed Margin = saw-like edge on the leaf Serrated edge Serrated edge Example: Example: Sycamore Sycamore

26 Leaves– Veins Pinnately veined means that there is only one main vein. Pinnately veined means that there is only one main vein. Palmately veined means that there are several main veins originating from the petiole.

27 Leaves– Veins (Cont.) Pinnate Veins (Ex: Dogwood) Pinnate Veins (Ex: Dogwood)

28 Palmate Veins (Ex: Sweetgum) Palmate Veins (Ex: Sweetgum) Leaves– Veins (Cont.)

29 Conifers Conifers bear cones and have needles. Conifers bear cones and have needles. Needles can be single & flat, blunt, round or sharp. Needles can be single & flat, blunt, round or sharp. Needles can be grouped together in tufts or bundles. Needles can be grouped together in tufts or bundles. Spruce needles are sharp and individually attached to the stem. Pine needles are attached to twig in “bundles” of 3-5, depending on species


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