Presentation on theme: "Question of the Day: How can you tell one tree from another? What characteristics do you use to identify a tree?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Question of the Day:How can you tell one tree from another? What characteristics do you use to identify a tree?
2 Dendrology What is dendrology? Trees vs. Shrubs Dendrology is the scientific study of trees and other woody plants.Trees vs. ShrubsTree = one, main woody stemShrub = small, woody, branchedfrom base
3 2 Major Tree Divisions Deciduous Conifers aka: Hardwoods & Broadleaf Sheds leaves seasonallyBroad leavesHardwoodExamples: Oaks, Maples, Tulip Poplars, etc.Conifersaka: Softwoods & EvergreenBear conesNeedle or scale-like leavesSoftwoodExamples: Pines, Cedars, Firs, etc.
4 Tree IdentificationTrees may be identified by various means including:LeavesBarkTree ShapeFlowers and FruitEtc.Let’s focus on leaves
5 Leaves Leaves are often the easiest/best way to identify a tree. Needles and scale of evergreens are also considered leaves.Some questions to consider when identifying leaves:Simple or compound?Margins smooth or rough?Arrangement on twig opposite or alternate?Veins pinnate (like a feather) or palmate?
6 Leaf Parts Important Vocab: Blade = whole leaf Petiole = stem Margin = outer edge
7 Leaves– Simple or Compound Simple leaves only have one leaf blade.Compound leaves are made up of several separate leaflets attached to a common leaf stem.
8 SimpleSource: Ohio State University– Biology of Horticulture Website
9 Compound Leaves Important to remember: Compound leaves have leaflets which are attached to the leaf stalk (not the twig)Leaflets can be attached to the leaf stalk in several ways:Pinnately CompoundBipinnately CompoundPalmately Compound
10 Compound Leaves (Cont.) Pinnately CompoundThe leaflets are attached across from each otherResembles a “feather”Ex: White Ash
11 P I N N A T ESource: Ohio State University– Biology of Horticulture Website
12 Compound Leaves (Cont.) Bipinnately or Twice CompoundThe primary leaflets are divided into secondary leaflets, also written 2-pinnateEx: Honeylocust
13 BipinnateSource: Ohio State University– Biology of Horticulture Website
14 Compound Leaves (Cont.) Palmately CompoundThe leaflets are arranged in a pattern that looks like fingers on the palm of a handEx: Horse Chestnut
15 P A L M A T ESource: Ohio State University– Biology of Horticulture Website
16 Quick Check for Understanding: Simple? Compound?
17 Leaves– How arranged on twig? (Leaf Arrangement) OppositeWhen leaves are arranged directly across from each other on the twig.AlternateWhen leaves stagger up the twig and are NOT located directly across from each other.Whorled2 or 3 leaves attached at the same point on the twig and “whorl” around the twig (think of circle)
19 Leaf Arrangement (Cont.) Most trees have alternate branching.Think to yourself “MAD Horse” (Maple, Ash, Dogwood, and Horse Chestnut) to remember those with opposite branching.
20 Leaf Arrangement (Continued) It is important to remember…The opposite vs. alternate vs. whorled arrangement refers to the way the LEAVES are arranged on TWIG, not the way the leaflets are arranged on the leaf stalk.
21 Quick Check for Understanding: Alternate? Opposite? Whorled? BAC
22 Leaves– Margins The margin of the leaf is the leaf edge. 3 major types:Entire MarginLobed MarginToothed Margin
29 Spruce needles are sharp and individually attached to the stem. ConifersConifers bear cones and have needles.Needles can be single & flat, blunt, round or sharp.Needles can be grouped together in tufts or bundles.Spruce needles are sharp and individually attached to the stem.Pine needles are attached to twig in “bundles” of 3-5, depending on species