Presentation on theme: "Introduction to World Agriculture. Define terms related to forestry. Describe the forest regions of the US. Discuss important relationships among forests,"— Presentation transcript:
Define terms related to forestry. Describe the forest regions of the US. Discuss important relationships among forests, wildlife, and water resources. Identify important types and species of trees. Describe how a tree grows. Discuss important properties of wood.
Forestry- management of forests Forest land- land at least 10 percent stocked by forest trees of any size Timberland- forest land that is capable of producing in excess of 20 cubic feet per acre per year of industrial wood Forest- a complex association of trees, shrubs, and plants, which all contribute to the life of the community
Trees- woody perennial plants with a single stem that develops many branches Shrubs- woody plants with a bushy growth pattern and multiple stems Lumber- boards that are sawed from trees Forest land may include parks, wilderness land, national monuments, game refuges, and other areas where harvesting of trees is not permitted.
Evergreen Do not shed leaves on a yearly basis Conifers- evergreen trees that produce seeds in cones, have needle-like leaves, and produce lumber called softwood Deciduous Shed their leaves every year and produce lumber called hardwood
Douglas Fir Balsam Fir Eastern and Western Hemlock Cedar Eastern Red, Eastern White, and Western Red White Pine Southern Pine Ponderosa Pine Sitka Spruce
Birch Maples Poplar Sweetgum White and Red Oak Aspen Ash Beech Cherry Hickory Sycamore Black Walnut Black Willow
Cambium- growth layer Annual rings- outward growth of cambium in one year creates these as seen in the cross section of a root, trunk, or limb Water and minerals are taken in by the roots and transported to the leaves through a layer of cells called the xylem layer or sapwood.
Phloem or inner bark carries food manufactured in the leaves to the stems, trunk, and roots. Each year the tree grows new cambium, xylem, and phloem tissues, and the older sapwood becomes heartwood. Heartwood-inactive core that gives a tree strength and rigidity
Hardness Weight Shrinkage Warp Ease of working Paint holding Nail holding Decay resistance Bending strength Stiffness Toughness Surface characteristics
Woodlot- small, privately owned forest Factors that need to be considered in the management of woodlots include: Water Soil Light Type of trees Condition of trees Markets available Methods of harvesting Replanting
Using scientific methods in the management of forests is called silviculture. The care and management of trees for ornamental pruposes is called arboriculture.
Seedlings (young trees started from seeds) are planted during late winter and early spring before the new season’s growth begins. Clear cut- all marketable trees have been removed Forester- person who studies and manages forests Virgin forests- those that have never been harvested
Plywood- construction material made of thin layers of wood glued together Veneer- very thin sheet of wood glued to a cheaper species of wood that is used in paneling and furniture making