Presentation on theme: "How to Measure & ID Week 1 Day 3"— Presentation transcript:
1How to Measure & ID Week 1 Day 3 Lifecycle of TreesIt is important that students understand the biology of trees to further be aware of trees’ role in the ecosystem throughout its life.How to Measure & IDWeek 1 Day 3SeedlingSeedSaplingMature OakSnag
2Background Like all living things trees have a life cycle: BirthGrowthAgingDeathAs trees grow, their physical form changes as does their role in the forest ecosystem
3Which came first - the tree, or the seed? SeedsWhich came first - the tree, or the seed?Seeds come in a variety of shapes,weights, colors, and sizes, depending on the species.Seeds develop from male and female parts of the trees producing fruits.Some seeds are in a protective nut like an acornOthers are in fleshy fruits, like the black cherry.The fruit of a pine is a cone and the seed is winged and resembles a miniature helicopter when falling.Wind, water, animals, and people disperse seeds to the forest floor, open fields, yards and roadsides.Where conditions are favorable for germination, seeds will germinate and grow.
4SeedlingThe seedling grows and begins to develop woody characteristics.The stems harden, change color, and develop a thin protective bark.The stem may bend or develop branches that reach toward light.Leaves or needles that develop are adapted to shade, but lean or tilt toward light.Most roots are in the upper soil to absorb water, nutrients and air.Seedlings compete for nutrients, water, sunlight, and space.Threats include fire, flood, drought, disease, insect attacks, and animals.At this stage the tree is most susceptible to being killed.
5SaplingWhen the tree is about 1-4 inches in diameter at 4.5 feet, it is considered a sapling.standard height where tree’s diameter is measured – diameter at breast height (DBH).As the tree starts to get taller the trunk thickens and branches develop.A sapling is the size of a tree growing in a nursery.In this juvenile state, the tree is not mature enough to reproduce.Growing rapidly, the sapling has the same competition and threats as seedlings.
6MatureWhat does DBH mean?With favorable conditions, a sapling will grow into a mature tree (>4 inches DBH).During this stage, each tree will grow as much as its species and site conditions will permit.In addition, flowers develop, reproduction ensues, fruits form, and seed dispersal can now occur.Trees provide the maximum environmental benefits to people during this stage.
7What plant in the picture would you say is a mature tree?
8DeclineThe life span of a tree is a wide-range, yet death is inevitable.A combination of factors overcome a tree and causes it to die.Injury, drought stress, followed by disease, rot, root dieback, coupled with a lightning strike or insect infestation contribute to tree decline.Sometimes a single factor is serious enough to cause mortality.
9Dead TreeStanding dead trees, called snags, play vital roles in the life cycle of many organisms.A snag slowly breaks down and returns nutrients as limbs, bark, and branches fall. It provides habitat and food for wildlife and insects.Animals, insects, and fungi help break down the tree.Eventually, the snag will fall and return nutrients to the soil where they are taken up by other trees.And, the cycle begins anew.
10What stage of the lifecycle are these trees in currently? SEEDLING
11What stage of the lifecycle are these trees in currently? SNAG
12What stage of the lifecycle are these trees in currently? SAPLING
13Have you ever measured anything? WHAT? HOW? WHY? Why do people measure things?In what ways do people measure things?
14A little PracticeHow many finger lengths is your book?1. Use the length of your index finger to measure the width of you textbook.2. Use the length of your forearm tomeasure the height of your desk.Record the results in your packet.Why did people get different measurements?Compare your index finger with your neighbors.How can we make sure our measurements are accurate?
15Why would we want to measure trees? Plan harvestingMake forest management decisionsMonitor forest health
16DBHTree diameter is an important forestry measure and is used to indicate how well a tree is growing over time.It is also one of the standard measures of timber volume used to estimate the commercial value of a forest stand.By convention, the diameter is measured at a height on the trunk that is 1.35 m (4.5 ft) above ground level.This height above the ground is used because uneven swelling and irregular growth at the base of the tree and upper roots could mask the true growth of the trunk.What would happen if people measured tree circumference at different heights?
17What is the crown spread of this tree? Tree’s Crown SpreadWhat is the crown spread of this tree?2.5 feetThis is a horizontal measurement:leaf tip to leaf tip of the shortest spreadleaf tip to leaf tip of the longest spreadthrough the main mass of the tree canopy Add the two numbers together, and divide by two for the average crown spreadCrown spread is difficult to measure when branches are high. Have 2 people stand where the tips of the farthest branches are directly overhead. A 3rd person can measure the distance at ground level.3 .5 feet1 .5 feet
18What is the crown spread of this tree? 9.5 feet11 feet8 feet
19How do you think you use a book like this to identify trees? Identifying TreesWhat characteristics would you use to identify trees? Look at the twigs on your desk for ideas.Look at several different featuresLeavesBarkTwigsFlowersFruitSeedsShapeHow do you think you use a book like this to identify trees?
20Needles or Broad Leaves In the simplest sense we have 2 types of trees:Conifers (coniferous) :seeds develop in cones, have needle shaped leavesdon’t lose leaves each year so stay green = evergreensPines, spruces, hemlocks and firsBroad-leaf (deciduous) :broad, flat leaves that they lose each yearOaks, maples, beeches and aspens
21Leaf Shape Differ in many ways and help identify trees Tips may be pointed, rounded, tapered…Bases may be squared, rounded, heart-shaped…
22What are the shapes of these 3 leaves? 1PALMATE!HEART-SHAPED!23ROUND OR OVAL!
23Margins Edges or margins of leaves give clues to tree identity Teeth (serrated)LobedSmooth (toothless)
24What type of leaf margin do these leaves have? LOBED!
25Textures Completely hairy Hairs on one side Completely smooth Thick, thin, rough or waxy
26Simple & Compound Simple leaves have only one piece to them Maple, oak, aspen and sycamoreCompound leaves are made-up of several leafletsAsh, walnut and sumac trees
28Leaf Arrangements The way the leaves are arranged on the twigs Alternate, opposite, whorls
29What kind of leaf arrangements are these? ALTERNATE!
30Twiggy Clues Even leafless twigs can help identify trees. Look for the leaf scars (leaves used to be there) or buds on the twig to see if leaves grow alternate, opposite or whorled.Size, color, texture, and shape of buds also help identify trees.Spines, thorns, prickles and other surface features also help.
31What type of leaf scar pattern do these twigs show? 2OPPOSITE!1ALTERNATE!
32Fruit and Flowers Various tree species produce characteristic fruits. Deciduous tress produce berries, winged samaras, nuts, or drupes. Some have unique names (acorns, walnuts, and chestnuts).Conifers produce different cones that vary in shape, size, and arrangement of scales.
33Bark Identify with the color and texture Shaggy, smooth , rough or deep furrowsExample: Paper Birch – white, paper-likeUse bark on trunk, not branchesPaper Birch
34Crown Shape Characteristic shapes can identify trees Rounded, weeping, vase-to Funnel, tabular and conicalSome people are able to look at a tree in the distance and know what kind it is