Presentation on theme: "[in English, wolverine]"— Presentation transcript:
1[in English, wolverine] Hello, my name isGulo gulo[in English, wolverine]Unit 13 – TaxonomyIn this unit, the summary is shown in blue, and the underlined words are vocabulary; the animation and video hyperlinks are shown in orange.
2Shoe Sort TPS How would you classify your shoes? If you had to create a cladogram [see below] to show the evolution of shoes, how would you do it?
3IntroductionWhen you go shopping in the grocery store, similar items are often placed on the same aisle. Why? They are most often related to each other.In science, classification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities.
4What is taxonomy? Textbook Reference pg. 443 Scientists classify the diverse number of organisms on the planet in order to learn and study from them into hierarchical groups (from general to more specific categories).In this unit you will learn how scientists classify living things; the science of taxonomy.
5Who was Carl von Linne? Textbook Reference pg. 444 Von Linne [AKA Carolus Linnaeus] was the Swedish biologist who in the mid- 1700’s developed the biological system of classification.7 taxonomic levels [or taxa]kingdom to species
6Binomial Nomenclature Textbook Reference pg. 444 Scientists give animals Latin/Greek names in classification which consists of two parts:genus + species [specific epithet].Often use Latin because it is universal [worldwide] and not widely spoken, therefore, the meaning is not likely to change.In Latin, nomenclatura = nomen "name"+ calare "to call"
7EX Tyrannosaurus rex translates to “tyrant lizard” and “king.”
8Binomial Nomenclature Cont. Always in italicsGenus name is written 1st, capitalizedSpecies name is written 2nd, NOT capitalizedEX scientific namesHomo sapiens (modern man)Felis domesticus (common housecat)
9Purpose for Classification A Latin name eliminates confusion caused by regional name differences.EX crayfish, crawdad, mudbug are all common names for….Cambarus bartoni
10Mountain lion, panther, cougar and puma are all common names for... Mountain lion, panther, cougar and puma are all common names for...Felis concolor
11Purpose cont. organizes large amounts of information Classification also reveals (or shows) evolutionary relationships between organisms
12Evolutionary Classification Textbook Reference pg. 452 Phylogeny – evolutionary relationships among organismsBiologists now group organisms according to phylogeny (lines of evolutionary descent), not just physical characteristics.
13Mnemonic FoldableCreate a mnemonic to remember the sequence of taxons from general to specificDKPCOFGS
14Modern Levels of Classification Textbook Reference pg. 449 DomainKingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies
15What is domain? Textbook Reference pg. 1073 Domain is the most recently added 8th taxonomic level, which is even more inclusive than a kingdom.There are three domains shown above.Two are prokaryotic, one is for eukaryotes.Domains in the News
17Domains Cont. Three domains of life: Three domains of life:Archaea & Bacteria contain only prokaryotes.Eukarya contains all eukaryotes.Take notes from the following slides in a Venn diagram.
18Domain ArchaeaMembers of the domain Archaea are bacteria [prokaryotes] that live in very extreme environments (hot volcanic springs, black organic mud, etc) and many can only survive in the absence of oxygen!Archaea were first found in extreme environments, such as volcanic hot springs. Pictured here is Grand Prismatic Spring of Yellowstone National Park.
19Domain BacteriaRegular everyday bacteria [prokaryotes] belong to domain Bacteria.EX SalmonellaAccording to the Mayo Clinic there are more than 2,000 strains of salmonella bacteria, but only a dozen or so make people sick. Salmonella is most often contracted by eating raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs. Image
20Domain EukaryaAll of the organisms that have a nucleus [eukaryotes] are included in Domain Eukarya.This domain includes a variety of life forms in 4 kingdoms:ProtistFungiPlantAnimalDomain Animation
21The Six Kingdoms Textbook Reference pg. 454-455 When organisms are newly discovered, they are identified, sorted, and categorized into one of the three domains.Basis of classification:Type of cellNumber of cellsMode of nutritionTake notes from the following slides in your NovaMind App.
22Relevant Kingdom Vocabulary ProkaryoteEukaryoteUnicellular = one-celledMulticellular = many-celledAutotroph = “self-feeder”, photosynthetic or chemosyntheticHeterotroph = “different-feeder”, consumer or decomposerMotile = organism movesSessile = stationary, does not move
23Prokaryotic Kingdoms Textbook Reference pg. 456-457 Eubacteria – bacteria common to “YOU” and meCell Type: Prokaryotic, UnicellularEnergy: Autotrophic and heterotrophicArchae bacteria – live in harsh environments (highly salty or acidic, high temperatures) ; mostly anaerobic w/out oxygenProkaryoticUnicellularAutotrophic only
24Kingdom Protist Textbook Reference pg. 457-458; Ch. 19 Protist – lack complex organ systems; require moist environments; first appeared in the fossil record 200 million years ago!Eukaryotic w/ cell wallsUnicellular & MulticellularAutotrophic & heterotrophicEX amoebas, algae, kelp
26Kingdom Fungi Textbook Reference pg. 458; Ch. 20 Fungi – EX Molds, mildews, and mushrooms; first appeared in the fossil record 400 million years ago!Eukaryotes w/ cell walls of chitinUnicellular & multicellularHeterotrophic decomposers
28What caused the Salem Witch Trials? n 1692 some teenage girls in Salem, Massachusetts, accused a West Indian slave named Tituba and two white women of practicing witchcraft. By April the girls began to denounce others as witches, including a former minister. In total close to 150 people were accused."Both women and men, such as George Jacobs, stood trial for witchcraft in Salem, " Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. History: Government and Politics. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2008. U.S. History In Context. Web. 20 Feb
29Kingdom Plants Textbook Reference pg. 458-459; Ch. 21 Plants – oxygen producers; create their food using photosynthesis (thus the green color).Non-motile (do not move)Eukaryotes w/ cell walls of celluloseMulticellularAutotrophsEX mosses, ferns, flowering and cone-bearing plants
30Kingdom Animal Textbook Reference pg. 459; Ch. 25 Animals - At the microscopic level, animal cells are different; they do NOT have cell walls.EukaryotesMulticellularHeterotrophsEX sponges, jellyfish, worms, insects, humans
31Dichotomous KeyTaxonomists have dichotomous keys to help to identify organisms; a guide.A dichotomous key consists of several pairs of descriptive statements to help identify an unknown organism.Dichotomous key animation
32What is a cladogram? Textbook Reference pg. 452 Derived characters – characteristics found in recent parts of a lineage through cladistics; used to construct cladograms.Cladograms show evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms.Caldogram animationCrabBarnacleLimpetCLASSIFICATION BASED ON VISIBLE SIMILARITIES