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Chapter 17: Classification. Biodiversity The variety of organisms considered at all levels from populations to ecosystems.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17: Classification. Biodiversity The variety of organisms considered at all levels from populations to ecosystems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17: Classification

2 Biodiversity The variety of organisms considered at all levels from populations to ecosystems

3 Taxonomy Taxonomy – science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms Taxon – particular group within a taxonomic system

4 Criteria for classification Cellular structure:prokaryote vs. eukaryote Methods of obtaining nutrients: autotroph vs. heterotroph Metabolism: aerobic vs. anaerobic Comparative anatomy:homologous structures Embryologic development:similar development stages Biochemistry: protein structures, base sequencing of the nucleic acids, DNA & RNA

5 Carolus Linnaeus – created original system of classification in the mid 1700s Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species Do kings play chess on fuzzy green stools?

6 Scientific Name - Binomial nomenclature: two-part name 1) Genus (capitilized, italicized) 2) species (lowercase, italicized) -same in all countries, unlike common name -Latin Ex: scientific name - Panthera tigris common name – tiger

7 Classification of Humans Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Verbrata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Family:Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: Sapiens

8 Branches of Taxonomy 1)Traditional Taxonomy-Linnaean system use form and structure Domain, Kingdom, Phylum etc. 2)Systematics Use phylogenetics- anaylsis of evolutionary history Use homologous structures, embryological development, DNA,RNA, and fossils Phylogenic Diagram-representation of classification

9 Taxonomy branches cont. 3)Cladistics Use Shared Characteristics and Derived characteristics Shared characteristics-a feature that all members of a group have in common Derived characteristics- is a feature that evolved only within the group under Create Cladograms- representation of classification

10 THREE DOMAINS 1)Bacteria – small single celled prokaryotic organisms, cell wall contains peptidoglycans, cell membrane contains fatty acids 2) Archaea – small single celled prokaryotic organisms, cell wall LACKS peptidoglycans, cell membrane contains fatty acids and other hydrocarbons 3) Eukarya – large, true nucleus (membrane-bound), complex cellular organelles(membrane bound). Includes plants, animals, fungi, and protista (some single-celled organisms)

11 SIX KINGDOMS DOMAIN BACTERIA 1)Kingdom Eubacteria DOMAIN ARCHAEA 2) Kingdom Archaebacteria DOMAIN EUKARYA 3) Kingdom Protista 4) Kingdom Fungi 5) Kingdom Plantae 6) Kingdom Animalia http://tolweb.org/tree/

12 1.Kingdom Eubacteria True Bacteria Prokaryotes Unicellular No true nucleus Autotrophs: Photosynthesizers & chemosynthesizers Heterotrophs ex. E. Coli Oldest known fossils

13 2. Kingdom Archaebacteria Ancient Bacteria Prokaryotes Unicellular No true nucleus Autotrophs: chemosynthesizers Heterotrophs: ex. Acidophiles or methanogens Not considered bacteria Found in harsh environments such as sulfurous hot springs, deep-sea thermal vents, and salty lakes

14 3. Kingdom Protista Eukaryotes True Nucleus most unicellular, some simple multicellular heterotrophic & autotrophic (photosynthesis) ex.Algae, ameoba, paramecium

15 4. Kingdom Fungi Eukaryotes True Nucleus Unicellular & multicellular heterotrophic ex.Mushrooms, rusts, mildew, molds

16 5.Kingdom Plantae Eukaryotes Multicellular Autotrophic-photosynthesis Cell specialization(tissues & organs) ex. Ferns, trees, mosses

17 6. Kingdom Animalia Eukaryotes Multicellular Heterotrophic Most are motile ex. Whales, insects, birds, etc…

18 Zorse


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