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Chapter 17: Classification

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1 Chapter 17: Classification

2 Biodiversity The variety of organisms considered at all levels from populations to ecosystems

3 Taxonomy Taxonomy – science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms Taxon – particular group within a taxonomic system

4 Criteria for classification
Cellular structure: prokaryote vs. eukaryote Methods of obtaining nutrients: autotroph vs. heterotroph Metabolism: aerobic vs. anaerobic Comparative anatomy: homologous structures Embryologic development: similar development stages Biochemistry: protein structures, base sequencing of the nucleic acids, DNA & RNA

5 Carolus Linnaeus – created original system of classification in the mid 1700s
Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species Do kings play chess on fuzzy green stools?

6 Scientific Name - Binomial nomenclature: two-part name
1) Genus (capitilized, italicized) 2) species (lowercase, italicized) same in all countries, unlike common name Latin Ex: scientific name - Panthera tigris common name – tiger

7 Classification of Humans
Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Verbrata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Family:Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: Sapiens

8 Branches of Taxonomy 1) Traditional Taxonomy-Linnaean system
use form and structure Domain, Kingdom, Phylum etc. 2) Systematics Use phylogenetics- anaylsis of evolutionary history Use homologous structures, embryological development, DNA,RNA, and fossils Phylogenic Diagram-representation of classification

9 Taxonomy branches cont.
3) Cladistics Use Shared Characteristics and Derived characteristics Shared characteristics-a feature that all members of a group have in common Derived characteristics- is a feature that evolved only within the group under Create Cladograms- representation of classification

10 THREE DOMAINS Bacteria – small single celled prokaryotic organisms, cell wall contains peptidoglycans, cell membrane contains fatty acids 2) Archaea – small single celled prokaryotic organisms, cell wall LACKS peptidoglycans, cell membrane contains fatty acids and other hydrocarbons 3) Eukarya – large, true nucleus (membrane-bound), complex cellular organelles(membrane bound). Includes plants, animals, fungi, and protista (some single-celled organisms)

2) Kingdom Archaebacteria DOMAIN EUKARYA 3) Kingdom Protista 4) Kingdom Fungi 5) Kingdom Plantae 6) Kingdom Animalia

12 1. Kingdom Eubacteria “True Bacteria”
Prokaryotes Unicellular No true nucleus Autotrophs: Photosynthesizers & chemosynthesizers Heterotrophs ex. E. Coli Oldest known fossils

13 2. Kingdom Archaebacteria “Ancient Bacteria”
Prokaryotes Unicellular No true nucleus Autotrophs: chemosynthesizers Heterotrophs: ex. Acidophiles or methanogens Not considered bacteria Found in harsh environments such as sulfurous hot springs, deep-sea thermal vents, and salty lakes

14 3. Kingdom Protista Eukaryotes True Nucleus
most unicellular, some simple multicellular heterotrophic & autotrophic (photosynthesis) ex. Algae, ameoba, paramecium

15 4. Kingdom Fungi Eukaryotes True Nucleus Unicellular & multicellular
heterotrophic ex. Mushrooms, rusts, mildew, molds

16 5. Kingdom Plantae Eukaryotes Multicellular Autotrophic-photosynthesis
Cell specialization(tissues & organs) ex. Ferns, trees, mosses

17 6. Kingdom Animalia Eukaryotes Multicellular Heterotrophic
Most are motile ex. Whales, insects, birds, etc…

18 Zorse

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