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Conversation on gender disparities in human development United Nations March 18, 2015 Jeni Klugman, Fellow, Women and Public Policy Program, Kennedy School,

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Presentation on theme: "Conversation on gender disparities in human development United Nations March 18, 2015 Jeni Klugman, Fellow, Women and Public Policy Program, Kennedy School,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Conversation on gender disparities in human development United Nations March 18, 2015 Jeni Klugman, Fellow, Women and Public Policy Program, Kennedy School, Harvard University and Fellow, FXB Center for Health and Human Rights

2 Outline 1.Global and regional patterns and trends Starting point: MDGs 2.What about missing dimensions? 3.Laws and norms: focus on violence

3 Progress on gender-related MDGs Goal 3: Promote gender equality and women's empowerment Goal 3: Gender parity in education Other indicators -- no targets, but slow progress – Share non-agricultural wage employment: % since 1990 – Representation in parliaments since 2000, 14 -> 22% Goal 5: Reduce maternal mortality by three quarters Indicators: MMR, ante-natal care, skill birth attendants

4 Education projections for Sub-Saharan Africa, at current rates of progress Source: UNESCO Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2013/14

5 Source: Klugman et al, Voice and Agency, 2014 based on Filmer 2012 Uneven enrolment and high drop-out rates, especially among the poor

6 Falling maternal mortality – with outliers

7 Fertility rates halved globally in past 50 years – but high rates remain Source: World Development Indicators, latest year

8 Types of jobs: Women and men sort into different sectors, occupations and types of firms. Earnings: Women consistently earn less, with gaps largely traced to sorting, gender differences in firm characteristics and access to productive inputs. Participation: Women’s labor force participation has stagnated globally, falling from 57 to 55 percent since Gender gaps persist in the world of work

9 Increases in female labor force participation in LAC from accounted for 30% of the reduction in extreme poverty over the period Falling global participation, and LAC exceptionalism

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11 Missing dimensions

12 More than 700 million women subject to violence at the hands of a husband, boyfriend or partner in their lifetime

13 Regional averages and outliers in Intimate Partner Violence rates Source: DHS, WHO, RHS, IVAWS and other surveys compiled by UN Women

14 Regional rates of non-partner sexual violence, lifetime Source: Worldwide prevalence of non-partner sexual violence: a systematic review, Abrahams et al, The Lancet 2014

15 Patterns of Violence in China (lifetime prevalence of ever experiencing/perpetrating)

16 Overlapping disadvantage In almost every region of the world, certain groups of people face systematic social exclusion as the result of multiple inequalities that constrict their life chances. Naila Kabeer

17 Women often face multiple deprivations and harmful norms: global picture Source: Klugman et al 2014 estimates based on DHS for 54 countries using latest available data from Percentage of all women across 54 countries

18 Extensive deprivations in Niger Source: Klugman et al 2014 Percentage of women

19 Changes in laws and norms Focus on violence

20 Source: Women, Business and the Law 2013 But 61/100 countries do not have laws criminalizing marital rape Cumulative number of countries with legislation against domestic violence, Existence of Laws at the National Level

21 Awareness about laws is not enough Source: Based on Fleming et al 2013, Engaging men and boys in advancing women’s agency: Where we stand and new directions

22 Reasons for women not seeking help Source: Klugman et al 2014; estimates based on DHS using latest available data from

23 Norms and attitudes can change: Change in shares of women who believe violence is justified Source: Klugman et al 2014 ; estimates based on DHS for 13 countries for which data over time are available.

24 Promising directions Education Legal reform Engaging men, boys, families, communities Social protection Media Economic opportunities

25 Who is accountable ? Definition of accountability: The obligation of governments to take responsibility for their commitments and actions… Accountability to whom, for what, and how?? At all levels, from local to global…

26 A Continuum of Accountability Principles Meaningful participation Inclusive & Accessible Responsive International Regional National Local


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