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Gender statistics in PRSPs Sulekha Patel The World Bank Gender Forum, Ghana, Accra January 26-28, 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Gender statistics in PRSPs Sulekha Patel The World Bank Gender Forum, Ghana, Accra January 26-28, 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender statistics in PRSPs Sulekha Patel The World Bank Gender Forum, Ghana, Accra January 26-28, 2009

2 Gender Issues in PRSPs Context To evaluate gender sensitivity of country PRSPs: MDGs Expanded ( proposed) set of indicators To identify existing gaps in PRSP coverage Next steps

3 Key Elements of Gender Equality Household Household resource and task allocations, fertility decisionsSociety Civic and political participation Economy & Markets Access to land, financial services, labor markets, technology Aggregate economic performance (poverty reduction, growth) Gender equality in rights, resources, and voice Leveling the field of opportunities Domains of choices, domains for policy

4 Framework : Key Elements of Gender Equality Ties together key elements of gender equality* In the household: increased gender equality between men and women changes the allocation of HH expenditures, resulting in a larger share of resources devoted to childrens education and health. In the market: gender inequality is reflected in unequal access to land, credit, and labor markets, and in significantly less access to new production technologies. In society: gender inequality is expressed as restrictions to womens participation in civic and political life. In addition to improving individuals lives, increased gender equality can contribute to better aggregate economic performance. *Source – WB Global Monitoring Report 2007

5 Advance Gender Equality: business case Countries are falling behind their commitment to meet the MDGs Gains in womens economic opportunities lag behind those on womens capabilities Lack of womens empowerment: Imperils growth and poverty reduction Less favourable education and health outcomes for children Rapid spread of HIV/AIDS

6 MDG 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Target 3A: Eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education by no later than 2015 HouseholdEconomy and market Society Ratio of girls to boys enrollment in primary, secondary, and tertiary education Share of women in wage employ- ment in the non- agricultural sector Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament Official Indicators

7 MDG3 Effect on Other MDGs Gender equality and womens empowerment are channels to attaining other MDGs universal primary education (MDG2A), lower under-five mortality (MDG4A), improved maternal health (MDG5A and B), lower likelihood of contracting HIV/AIDS (MDG6A), Reduce biodiversity loss (MDG7B).

8 Limitations of the Official MDG3 Indicators Only partially measure gender equality Do not monitor key elements of gender equality (health outcomes and disparities in access to productive resources such as land, credit, and technology) Inadequate measurement of empowerment National-level indicators can veil inequalities between particular subgroups

9 Official MDG indicators conceal inequalities within countries Ratio of girls to boys enrollment in primary, secondary, and tertiary education – say nothing about educational outcomes (Completion? Getting a job?) Gaps between boys and girls completion rates remain high in SSA and SA (90% to 83% and 67% to 57% respectively) Changes in the indicators based on parity ratios are difficult to interpret. (Increases in female-to-male ratios can result from a fall in male rates with female rates remaining constant) Measures the status of women relative to men, rather than whether women are empowered (whether they have the ability to exercise options, choice, and control)

10 Other Indicators limitations: Share of women in non/agricultural wage employment Does not take into account the circumstances of each country – such as the share of non-agricultural employment as a percentage of total employment. Limited use for low-income countries where wage employment is not a main source of jobs. Does not capture the dimensions of job quality/ability of women to work for pay (economic empowerment) Does not quantify barriers inhibiting women from participating in the labour force. Does not capture the ability of women to control their fertility Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments Captures political participation only at the national level, not at provincial or local levels,

11 Prospective MDG 3 Indicators HouseholdEconomy and marketsSociety Test scores, male and female Gender gap in wagesPercentage voting by male, female, and ratio Proportion of women who have ever been victims of physical violence by an intimate male partner Share of women in informal wage and self-employment in nonagricultural employment Proportion of women in the executive branch Percent of employed women who face access to child care Percentage of individuals who possess basic citizenship documents, female, and ratio Business by average size and sex of owner Access to credit for women and men Land ownership by female, male, and jointly held

12 Gender in the PRSPs 45 PRSPs, from were reviewed Examined the degree to which gender issued were addressed, and deemed measureable: MDGs Prospective set of indicators

13 MDG coverage in PRSPs

14 Related MDG indicators

15 Prospective MDG3 Indicators: Household IssueIndicator Number of countries Test scores, male and female 0 Proportion of women who have ever been victims of physical violence by an intimate male partner/Domestic Violence % of women who have experienced violence 4 % who know that violence against women is a crime 1 % of cases prosecuted 1 % of women victim reintegrated in the society 2

16 Prospective MDG3 Indicators- Economy and Markets IssueIndicatorNumber of countries Gender gap in wages Females wages as % of males wages1 Gender salary gap in the private sector1 Share of women in informal wage and self-employment in non-agricultural employment Share of women self- employed1 Number of hours women in agricultural work per day1 Informal sector9 Percent of employed women who face access to child care Percentage of children getting day-care facilities1 Business by average size and sex of owner 0 Access to credit for women and men Percentage of women with access to training, credit and fiscal incentives for SMEs 1 Percentage of women who have obtained credit7 Volume of microcredits granted to women1 Ratio of men to women who have obtained credit1 Land ownership by female, male, and jointly held Percentage of girls/women with access to land ownership 2 Percentage of women who had the right to inherit1

17 Prospective MDG3 Indicators: Society IssueIndicatorNumber of countries Percentage voting by male, female, and ratio 0 Proportion of women in the executive branch 7 Percentage of individuals who possess basic citizenship documents, female, and ratio 0

18 Next steps Advocacy: Raise awareness for Bank and country staff: Developing training for Bank staff Collaboration with partners to develop indicators to measure and monitor the prospective indicators: Identify indicators Develop methodology to gather and process data


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