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Panel II - Promoting the access of vulnerable groups to social services covering basic needs A synthesis of discussions Hugh Frazer
Panel Themes Introduction: why social services are essential Who are the vulnerable groups and what are their basic needs Defining the range and types of social services needed Who is responsible for providing social services Effective delivery: how to ensure social services are accessible and appropriate
Why social services? Social exclusion is multi-dimensional - about more than poverty or having a job Meet basic needs and enable participation in society Support access to employment and an adequate income Create employment Underpin sustainable economic development Promote personal growth and self-reliance Prevention and alleviation Expression of social solidarity Support adaptation to change Enhance democracy
Wide range of needs Basic Needs are multi-dimensional –work and basic income (panel 1) –decent accommodation; clean water and sanitation; safe & sustainable environment; health and social care; education & training (incl. ICT) –day care; transport; legal services; cultural, sporting, and recreational opportunities; access to credit –supportive family & social networks Unmet basic needs both cause and are a result of poverty and social exclusion
Exacerbating factors Gender inequality Migration Discrimination and racism Violence, trafficking, and displacement Spatial segregation Disability Poor health –HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis Demographic change (e.g. ageing populations) Weakening family and social solidarity systems Addiction
Main vulnerable groups at risk of not having basic needs met Main groups Long-term unemployed and jobless households People in poor and insecure employment –grey economy –subsistence agriculture Children –large families and lone parent families People with disabilities and poor physical or mental health Extreme situations homeless; victims of violence and displaced people; some ethnic minorities (e.g. Roma); illiterate; living in institution, victim of violence
Types of social services - 1 1. Mainline services - social housing, health care, personal & family services, education & training, - transport, legal services, cultural, sporting and recreational services Purpose –promote social inclusion & prevent poverty and social exclusion –complement informal family and social systems Key task –ensure their affordability, accessibility and adequacy for all
Types of social services - 2 2.Targeted/differentiated services to overcome particular disadvantages Help with immediate crises loss of job, homelessness, indebtedness, displacement due to violence and intimidation, family breakdown, drug addiction Personal development and empowerment build skills and self-confidence for social and employment integration language training, community education, community arts, occupational development and reintegration programmes
Types of social services - 3 3. Services for social solidarity Compensate for disadvantages that can only be partially overcome e.g. severe disability or chronic ill-health
Who provides? - 1 Take account of economic, social and cultural relations in a country Innovate and develop new arrangements adapted to situation in each country Big issue – how/whether to balance/integrate formal and informal systems?
Who provides? - 2 A mix of providers: –government agencies (national or local) –self-help organisations co-operatives, trade-unions, community organisations informal ethnic, religious, social solidarity networks –family networks –NGOs/international organisations –private sector –partnerships Governments overall responsibility –whether as provider or regulator or both –ensure basic needs are met –ensure most vulnerable have access –ensure quality, coordination and integration of services
Ensuring effective delivery 1-5 Holistic: multi-dimensional thus coordination and integration across social services link with income and employment mainstreaming Decentralised and local –where people live –accessible (physically and in terms of information) Community development approach –participation of vulnerable groups –empower people: build self-esteem & self-reliance –collective action and community organising – capacity building –outreach Responsive, flexible, tailored - individual plan Accountable and transparent: monitor and evaluate
Ensuring effective delivery 6-10 Quality and continuous improvement Open to experimentation and innovation Based on respect for rights and dignity (equality, non discrimination, avoid stigma) Partnership and joint responsibility Consistent and sustainable
5 Conclusions Social services: Secure basic needs and fundamental rights meet the MDGs expression of social solidarity Combine with employment and social security to ensure active inclusion in society Enhance political legitimacy and reinforce democracy Help people to adapt to globalisation & change Investment in sustainable economic and social development – create a virtuous cycle
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